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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2012  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 153-161

Virological investigation of hand, foot, and mouth disease in a tertiary care center in South India


1 Department of Clinical Virology, Christian Medical College, Dr. Ida Scudder Road, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Dermatology, Christian Medical College, Dr. Ida Scudder Road, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
Asha M Abraham
Department of Clinical Virology, Christian Medical College, Dr. Ida Scudder Road, Vellore, Tamil Nadu
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0974-777X.100572

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Context: Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) remains a common problem in India, yet its etiology is largely unknown as diagnosis is based on clinical characteristics. There are very few laboratory-based molecular studies on HFMD outbreaks. Aim: The aim of this study was to characterize HFMD-related isolates by molecular techniques. Settings and Design: Between 2005 and 2008, during two documented HFMD outbreaks, 30 suspected HFMD cases presented at the Outpatient Unit of the Department of Dermatology, Christian Medical College (CMC), Vellore. Seventy-eight clinical specimens (swabs from throat, mouth, rectum, anus, buttocks, tongue, forearm, sole, and foot) were received from these patients at the Department of Clinical Virology, CMC, for routine diagnosis of hand, foot, and mouth disease. Materials and Methods: Samples from these patients were cultured in Vero and rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cell lines. Isolates producing enterovirus-like cytopathogenic effect (CPE) in cell culture were identified by a nested reverse transcription-based polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and sequenced. The nucleotide sequences were analyzed using the BioEdit sequence program. Homology searches were performed using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) algorithm. Statistical Analysis used: The statistical analysis was performed using Epi Info version 6.04b and Microsoft Excel 2002 (Microsoft Office XP). Results: Of the 30 suspected HFMD cases, only 17 (57%) were laboratory confirmed and Coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) was identified as the etiological agent in all these cases. Conclusions: Coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) was identified as the virus that caused the HFMD outbreaks in Vellore between 2005 and 2008. Early confirmation of HFMD helps to initiate control measures to interrupt virus transmission. In the laboratory, classical diagnostic methods, culture and serological tests are being replaced by molecular techniques. Routine surveillance systems will help understand the epidemiology of HFMD in India.


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2008 Journal of Global Infectious Diseases | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 10th December, 2008