Journal of Global Infectious DiseasesOfficial Publishing of INDUSEM and OPUS 12 Foundation, Inc. Users online:650  
Print this pageEmail this pageSmall font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size     
Home About us Editors Ahead of Print Current Issue Archives Search Instructions Subscribe Advertise Login 
Year : 2012  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 6-9

Increased likelihood of bacterial pathogens in the coronal sulcus and urethra of uncircumcised men in a diverse group of HIV infected and uninfected patients in India

1 Department of Medicine; Health Studies, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA
2 Andhra Pradesh AIDS Consortium, SHARE-India; Andhra Pradesh Government Chest Hospital, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India
3 Health Studies, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA
4 Department of Microbiology, Nizam's Institute of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India
5 Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA
6 Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL; Biosciences Division, Institute for Genomics and Systems Biology, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, USA
7 Andhra Pradesh Government Chest Hospital, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
John A Schneider
Department of Medicine; Health Studies, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA

Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0974-777X.93750

Rights and Permissions

Background: The biological mechanism of circumcision as potentiating HIV prevention is poorly understood. Foreskin microbiota has been postulated as having a potential role; however, little is known about the relationship between bacterial pathogens and circumcision in adults. Materials and Methods: We sampled the coronal sulcus of a diverse group of circumcised and uncircumcised men (n=315) from a government chest hospital and fertility clinic in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. Genital examination was conducted on three groups of men: Group 1 - HIV infected; Group 2 - TB infected; Group 3 - control. Aerobic and anaerobic specimens were cultured according to standard clinical protocols, and results were analyzed following multivariate logistic regression models. Results: Three hundred fifteen study participants - 47.6% of Group 1, 36.5% of Group 2, and 15.9% of Group 3 - were enrolled in the study and included in all analyses. Overall 37.1% of the participants were circumcised without variation across groups (P=0.29). Smegma was observed in 18.7% of the participants with no cases observed in Group 3 (P<0.001). Gram-negative pathogens were more prevalent among study participants in Group 1 (22.7%) and Group 2 (30.4%) as compared with those in Group 3 (6.0%) (P=0.003). In multivariate regression analysis, controlling for group, age, and presence of smegma, uncircumcised men were more likely to be colonized with gram positives [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) 1.9; P<0.05)], gram negatives (AOR 2.4; P<0.05), or any pathogen (AOR 2.8; P<0.005). Conclusions: Uncircumcised men in this population in South India are more likely to harbor bacterial pathogens in the coronal sulcus than do their circumcised counterparts. Future studies should examine the relationship between foreskin microbiota and HIV transmission.

Print this article     Email this article
 Next article
 Previous article
 Table of Contents

 Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
 Citation Manager
 Access Statistics
 Reader Comments
 Email Alert *
 Add to My List *
 * Requires registration (Free)

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded25    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 3    

Recommend this journal


Sitemap | What's New | Feedback | Copyright and Disclaimer | Contact Us
2008 Journal of Global Infectious Diseases | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 10th December, 2008