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Year : 2011  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 281-284
Toxoplasmosis: A global threat

1 Casey Eye Institute, Division of International Ophthalmology, Oregon Health & Science University, USA
2 Casey Eye Institute and Departments of Cell and Developmental Biology, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA
3 Department of Ophthalmology, Federal University of São Paulo, Brazil

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Date of Web Publication6-Aug-2011


Toxoplasmosis, a disease described worldwide, which is caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, commonly involves the retina. The disease has a higher impact in immunocompromised individuals and in congenital infection because of the severity of central nervous system involvement. Although simple prophylactic measures could reduce transmission, T. gondii seroprevalence is still high, especially in South America. Educational campaigns and the development of new drugs to prevent primary infection could potentially reduce the burden of the disease.

Keywords: Congenital toxoplasmosis, Ocular toxoplasmosis, Toxoplasmic encephalitis

How to cite this article:
Furtado JM, Smith JR, Belfort R, Gattey D, Winthrop KL. Toxoplasmosis: A global threat. J Global Infect Dis 2011;3:281-4

How to cite this URL:
Furtado JM, Smith JR, Belfort R, Gattey D, Winthrop KL. Toxoplasmosis: A global threat. J Global Infect Dis [serial online] 2011 [cited 2023 Feb 7];3:281-4. Available from:

   Introduction Top

Toxoplasmosis, caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, causes a retinal infection, affecting healthy and immunocompromised people in many countries; [1] and it can also be a life-threatening disease in immune-suppressed individuals. [2] The parasite is transmitted through raw meat containing T. gondii cysts or water containing oocysts from feline feces. [3] Both waterborne [4],[5],[6],[7] and food-borne [8] outbreaks of the disease have been reported from countries with diverse cultural, social and ethnic backgrounds. The parasite can be transmitted vertically as well, mainly when women acquire primary disease during pregnancy. [9] Although rare, the disease can also be transmitted through transplanted organs. [10]

Although felines are the only definitive host, T. gondii can infect and replicate within virtually any nucleated vertebrate cell. [11] The T. gondii life cycle is divided into two parts: an asexual phase, which takes place in nucleated cells; and a sexual phase within the gastrointestinal tract of cats. [11] Fertilized gametes are generated from sexual replication within the feline's small intestine, and excreted oocysts can last in the environment for 18 months. [12]

Once ingested, oocysts and/ or tissue cysts rupture and invade cells in intestinal lining, and the sporozoites (released from the oocysts) or the bradyzoites (released from the tissue cysts) differentiate into tachyzoites, the fast-replicating form of the parasite. [13] These tachyzoites may be detected in host leukocytes or may be circulating freely within the bloodstream. [14],[15],[16]

T. gondii exists in clonal populations. [17] Initially three clonal types were designated based on genotype similarities, named type I, type II and type III; however, some strains formerly classified as "atypical" were recognized as different haplogroups based on phylogenetic analysis, and currently more haplogroups are described. [18]

   Epidemiology of Human Infection Top

Worldwide, over 6 billion people have been infected with T. gondii.[19] Seroprevalence, measured by IgG against T. gondii, varies worldwide, being reported to be 6.7% in Korea, [20] 12.3% in China, [21] 23.9% in Nigeria, [22] 46% in Tanzania [23] and 47% in France (rural area), [24] and can be as high as 98% in some regions. [25]

In the United States, prevalence of Toxoplasmosismay be declining, but approximately 14% of the individuals are seropositive by the age of 40 years, [26] with one million new infections each year, resulting in approximately 20,000 cases of retinal infection [27] and 750 deaths, making it the second most common cause of deaths related to food-borne diseases. [28]

South America and Africa have a bigger variety of haplogroups than North America and Europe, [18],[29] suggesting that in these continents sexual replication of the parasites occurs more frequently than in any other part of the world. This variety may contribute to the higher prevalence of seropositivity and ocular disease due to T. gondii,[30] because in South America, toxoplasmic eye disease and infection prevalence is higher than in many other parts of the world. [31] Environmental conditions, eating habits, hygiene and host susceptibility may also contribute to the differences in prevalence found globally.

   Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis Top

The majority of the immunocompetent subjects will remain asymptomatic lifelong, but both competent and immunocompromised subjects can develop the disease, especially retinochoroiditis. Infected individuals may present with asymptomatic cervical lymphadenopathy during the acute systemic infection; as well as signs and symptoms that mimic mononucleosis infection, like myalgia, sore throat, fever, maculopapular rash and, infrequently, polymyositis and myocarditis. [12]

Ocular toxoplasmosis

Ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) generally causes characteristic looking retinal lesions that are focal and white, which are usually smaller than 1,000 microns in size, [32] with a vigorous vitreous inflammatory reaction resulting in a typical 'headlight in the fog' appearance. [13] These lesions are due both to direct parasitic tissue invasion and the ensuing immune response directed against the parasite; [33] and active lesions are often associated with contiguous old scars. [34] Patients with AIDS have a different presentation of the disease, with a broad variety of clinical signs, [35] and the differential diagnosis should include other infectious diseases, such as cytomegalovirus and syphilitic retinitis. [1]

Retinochoroidal inflammation during a primary or recurrent eye infection generally persists for 2 to 4 months. [34] In an observational case series comprising 154 patients with active OT lesions followed for at least 5 years, it was found that almost one patient out of four developed blindness in at least one eye; and one out of five patients had recurrences, mainly in eyes with previous retinal scars. [36] The risk of recurrence of OT is higher in individuals aged 40 or more, and also within 5 years after the most recent episode. [37]

Toxoplasmic encephalitis

Even in this era of highly active antiretroviral therapy, toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in AIDS patients, [2] and is usually caused by reactivation of a latent infection. [38] A wide range of nonspecific symptoms, such as dementia, ataxia, lethargy, seizures, can be present, which makes the clinical diagnosis difficult to make, [39] and TE should be suspected, especially in areas with a higher prevalence of the disease, like South America.

Although not pathognomonic, the presence of multiple brain abscesses is the most typical feature of T. gondii infection in AIDS patients. Postmortem brain analyses describe a global involvement of both hemispheres, although the basal ganglia and the corticomedullary junction are the commonest sites of T. gondii brain infection. [38]

Congenital toxoplasmosis

Newborns presenting with congenital toxoplasmosis can be asymptomatic but can also develop retinochoroiditis and/ or CNS involvement. [40] It is estimated that prevalence of congenital toxoplasmosis is 1-10 per 10,000 live births in United States, [41] one per 770 live births in Southeast Brazil [42] and one per 3,000 live births in France. [43] Although hard to estimate, the burden attributed to the disease in Netherlands is approximately 620 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) annually, mainly due to retinal disease and fetal loss. [44] This burden is comparable to that of the well-known and frequent food-borne pathogen  Salmonella More Details spp.[45]

The risk of vertical transmission is higher at later stages of pregnancy, but infection is usually more severe if transmitted early in the gestation period. [9

Intracranial calcifications may be present and are detected by ultrasonography. Clinical signs and symptoms include hydrocephalus, delayed mental development and/ or epilepsy, which may mimic other congenital infections of the TORCH complex (i.e., rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus). [13]

Congenital OT is generally more sight-threatening than acquired infections, as retinal lesions found in congenitally infected newborns are often placed in the macula, [36] the region responsible for central vision, and children presenting with toxoplasmosis-related blindness or low vision will live many years with the disability.

In the United States, approximately 9% of children with congenital toxoplasmosis have significant visual impairment, [46] whereas rates are much higher in other regions. Within Europe, 29% of such children have visual impairment, compared with 87% from the Brazilian cohorts, in the three to four years following birth. [47]

Laboratory diagnosis

Detection of prior infection can be documented by serology, with changes in serology used to infer acute infection. The IgG response generally appears within 7 to 14 days of infection, has a peak within 30 to 60 days and usually persists lifelong. [48]

IgM appears prior to IgG after primary infection but typically do not persist, and if present, indicate acute infection; but confirmatory tests should be executed, as its specificity is not always satisfactory. By testing the avidity for T. gondii IgG, one can discriminate whether the infection was acquired recently or in the past, [48] as in a small percentage of the cases T. gondii IgM can remain positive for up to 24 months. [49]

Other methods that may also be used to assess the disease are the histology of infected tissues, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of body fluids (like cerebrospinal fluid), or culture of the parasite. For prenatal diagnosis, PCR to detect parasite DNA on amniotic fluid should be performed. [48] PCR of aqueous humor and/ or vitreous can be an important tool to diagnose OT with atypical presentation in AIDS patients. [50]

   Treatment and Prevention Top

Hygienic measures can reduce the transmission of the parasite, such as washing fruits and vegetables, avoiding consumption of raw and undercooked meat, and washing hands after gardening or handling cats. [41] Although these measures are cost-effective and easily implemented, in some areas water used for washing may be contaminated with toxoplasmosis. [51] Many pregnant women are unaware that toxoplasmosis can be transmitted through uncooked meat, for example; [52] and educative campaigns should be devised to help prevent the transmission of the disease.

Treatment of TE in AIDS patients consists of pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine and folinic acid, with clindamycin used as an alternative in patients allergic to sulfadiazine. Prophylaxis against TE is indicated in IgG-positive patients with less than 100 CD4 T lymphocytes per mm 3 , and consists of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. [38] Patients taking pyrimethamine must have their blood cells regularly monitored, as the drug can potentially cause bone marrow depression. [9]

Although there are an immense number of varieties of different therapies to treat acute or recurrent OT, a combination of sulfadiazine, pyrimethamine, folinic acid and oral prednisone is the commonest therapy prescribed by ophthalmologists. [33] Short-term therapy of OT does not prevent disease recurrence, although prolonged suppressive therapy with sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim can reduce the number of recurrences. [53] It is important to emphasize that there is no treatment that restores damaged retinal cells, and both active lesions and scars can lead to permanent blindness.

   Conclusion Top

Although most immunocompetent individuals infected with toxoplasmosis remain asymptomatic throughout life, worldwide this parasite causes a large amount of visual loss and morbidity, in addition to fatal infections in immunocompromised patients. Hygienic measures are cost-effective and can reduce the chance of transmission, and new studies should be directed towards prevention of primary infection.

   References Top

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53.Silveira C, Belfort R Jr, Muccioli C, Holland GN, Victora CG, Horta BL, et al. The effect of long-term intermittent trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole treatment on recurrences of toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis. Am J Ophthalmol 2002;134:41-6.  Back to cited text no. 53

Correspondence Address:
João M Furtado
Casey Eye Institute, Division of International Ophthalmology, Oregon Health & Science University
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0974-777X.83536

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20 Application of Dendrimers for Treating Parasitic Diseases
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Pharmaceutics. 2021; 13(3): 343
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21 Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii assayed using Rapid Diagnostic Tests among Residents in Three Counties Adjacent to The Demilitarized Zone, Korea
Jeehi Jung, Jinyoung Lee, Yoon Kyung Chang, Seong Kyu Ahn, Seo Hye Park, Sung-Jong Hong, Jihoo Lee, Chom-Kyu Chong, Hye-Jin Ahn, Ho-Woo Nam, Tong-Soo Kim, Dongjae Kim
The Korean Journal of Parasitology. 2021; 59(1): 9
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
22 Clusters of Toxoplasmosis in Ganghwa-gun, Cheorwon-gun, and Goseong-gun, Korea
Jihye Yu, Woojin Kim, Yoon Kyung Chang, Tong-Soo Kim, Sung-Jong Hong, Hye-Jin Ahn, Ho-Woo Nam, Dongjae Kim
The Korean Journal of Parasitology. 2021; 59(3): 251
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
23 Toxoplasma GRA Peptide-Specific Serologic Fingerprints Discriminate Among Major Strains Causing Toxoplasmosis
David Arranz-Solís, Cristina G. Carvalheiro, Elizabeth R. Zhang, Michael E. Grigg, Jeroen P. J. Saeij
Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology. 2021; 11
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
24 The Ringleaders: Understanding the Apicomplexan Basal Complex Through Comparison to Established Contractile Ring Systems
Alexander A. Morano, Jeffrey D. Dvorin
Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology. 2021; 11
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
25 The Potential Contribution of ABO, Lewis and Secretor Histo-Blood Group Carbohydrates in Infection by Toxoplasma gondii
Luiz Carlos De Mattos, Ana Iara Costa Ferreira, Karina Younan de Oliveira, Fabiana Nakashima, Cinara Cássia Brandão
Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology. 2021; 11
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
26 Effect of some plant extracts from Egyptian herbal plants against Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites in vitro
Journal of Veterinary Medical Science. 2021; 83(1): 100
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
27 Neuroretinitis and Juxtapapillary Retinochoroiditis as Atypical Presentations of Ocular Toxoplasmosis
Nelly N Kabedi, Jean-Claude Mwanza
International Medical Case Reports Journal. 2021; Volume 14: 657
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
28 Supply and demand—heme synthesis, salvage and utilization by Apicomplexa
Joachim Kloehn, Clare R. Harding, Dominique Soldati-Favre
The FEBS Journal. 2021; 288(2): 382
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29 Protective immunity induced by CpG ODN-adjuvanted virus-like particles containing Toxoplasma gondii proteins
Hae-Ji Kang, Ki-Back Chu, Min-Ju Kim, Su-Hwa Lee, Hyunwoo Park, Hui Jin, Eun-Kyung Moon, Fu-Shi Quan
Parasite Immunology. 2021; 43(1)
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30 Direct Nanopore Sequencing of mRNA Reveals Landscape of Transcript Isoforms in Apicomplexan Parasites
V. Vern Lee, Louise M. Judd, Aaron R. Jex, Kathryn E. Holt, Christopher J. Tonkin, Stuart A. Ralph, Paola Flórez de Sessions, Scott Lindner
mSystems. 2021; 6(2)
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31 The Level of Knowledge about Toxoplasmosis among University Students in Rabat in Morocco
Sanaa Ait Hamou, Brahim Lamhamdi, Ichrak Hayah, Imane Belbacha, Abderrahim Sadak, Majda Laboudi, Lizandra Guidi Magalhães
Journal of Parasitology Research. 2021; 2021: 1
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32 Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Toxoplasma gondii Infection among Pregnant Women in Kumasi: A Cross-Sectional Study at a District-Level Hospital, Ghana
Bhavana Singh, Linda Batsa Debrah, Godfred Acheampong, Alexander Yaw Debrah, David Baker
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2021; 2021: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
33 Adverse outcomes associated with the treatment of Toxoplasma infections
Ahmed M. Shammaa, Thomas G. Powell, Imaan Benmerzouga
Scientific Reports. 2021; 11(1)
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34 Is Toxoplasma gondii Infection a Cause or a Coincidence in an Adolescent with Psychosis?
Hüsniye Yucel, Burak Acikel, F Nur Öz, Saliha Senel
Journal of Pediatric Infectious Diseases. 2021; 16(03): 134
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
35 Scoping Review of Toxoplasma Postinfectious Sequelae
Erika Austhof, Kylie Boyd, Kenzie Schaefer, Caitlyn McFadden, Ama Owusu-Dommey, Sandra Hoffman, Lorenzo Villa-Zapata, Deborah Jean McClelland, Kristen Pogreba-Brown
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease. 2021; 18(10): 687
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Survey of Ophthalmology. 2021;
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37 Absence of Toxoplasma gondii in 100% Iberian products from experimentally infected pigs cured following a specific traditional process
Mercedes Gomez-Samblas, Susana Vilchez, Rocío Ortega-Velázquez, Màrius V. Fuentes, Antonio Osuna
Food Microbiology. 2021; 95: 103665
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
38 Toxoplasma gondii secreted effectors co-opt host repressor complexes to inhibit necroptosis
Alex Rosenberg, L. David Sibley
Cell Host & Microbe. 2021; 29(7): 1186
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
39 Transcriptional modification of host cells harboring Toxoplasma gondii bradyzoites prevents IFN gamma-mediated cell death
Simona Seizova, Ushma Ruparel, Alexandra L. Garnham, Stefanie M. Bader, Alessandro D. Uboldi, Michael J. Coffey, Lachlan W. Whitehead, Kelly L. Rogers, Christopher J. Tonkin
Cell Host & Microbe. 2021;
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40 Prevalence of toxoplasmosis in patients infected with tuberculosis; a sero-molecular case-control study in northwest Iran
Mehdi Parsaei, Adel Spotin, Mohammad Matini, Hossein Mahjub, Mohammad Aghazadeh, Gholamreza Ghahremani, Heshmatollah Taherkhani
Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. 2021; : 101720
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41 Toxoplasmosis: Targeting neurotransmitter systems in psychiatric disorders
Tooran Nayeri, Shahabeddin Sarvi, Ahmad Daryani
Metabolic Brain Disease. 2021;
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42 Depression and Toxoplasma gondii infection: assess the possible relationship through a seromolecular case–control study
Saber Nasirpour, Farnaz Kheirandish, Shirzad Fallahi
Archives of Microbiology. 2020; 202(10): 2689
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43 Urolithin-A attenuates neurotoxoplasmosis and alters innate response towards predator odor
Sijie Tan, Wen Han Tong, Ajai Vyas
Brain, Behavior, & Immunity - Health. 2020; 8: 100128
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44 Novel acyl carbamates and acyl / diacyl ureas show in vitro efficacy against Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium parvum
Kun Li, Gregory M. Grooms, Shahbaz M. Khan, Anolan Garcia Hernandez, William H. Witola, Jozef Stec
International Journal for Parasitology: Drugs and Drug Resistance. 2020; 14: 80
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45 Duffy blood group system and ocular toxoplasmosis
Ana Iara Costa Ferreira, Cinara Cássia Brandão de Mattos, Fábio Batista Frederico, Cássia Rúbia Bernardo, Gildásio Castelo de Almeida Junior, Rubens Camargo Siqueira, Cristina Silva Meira-Strejevitch, Vera Lucia Pereira-Chioccola, Luiz Carlos de Mattos
Infection, Genetics and Evolution. 2020; 85: 104430
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46 Isolation, genetic and immunohistochemical identification of Toxoplasma gondii from human placenta in a large toxoplasmosis outbreak in southern Brazil, 2018
Fernanda Pinto-Ferreira, Beatriz de Souza Lima Nino, Felippe Danyel Cardoso Martins, Thais Cabral Monica, Isadora Cortella Britto, Ariana Signori, Kerlei Cristina Medici, Roberta Lemos Freire, Italmar Teodorico Navarro, João Luis Garcia, Selwyn Arlington Headley, Fernanda Silveira Flores Vogel, Camila E. Minuzzi, Luiza Pires Portella, Patricia Bräunig, Luis Antonio Sangioni, Aline Ludwig, Luciane Silva Ramos, Liliane Pacheco, Camila Ribeiro Silva, Flávia Caselli Pacheco, Ivone Andreatta Menegolla, Lourdes Bonfleur Farinha, Simone Haas, Natalia Canal, José Roberto Mineo, Cledison Marcio Difante, Regina Mitsuka-Breganó
Infection, Genetics and Evolution. 2020; 85: 104589
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47 One gene to rule them all in a chronic brain infection
Eva-Maria Frickel
Nature. 2020; 579(7797): 34
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48 Aggravation of symptom severity in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder by latent Toxoplasma gondii infection: a case–control study
Alexandra P. Lam, Dominik de Sordi, Helge H. O. Müller, Martin C. Lam, Angelika Carl, Klaus P. Kohse, Alexandra Philipsen
Scientific Reports. 2020; 10(1)
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49 Toward Improving Interventions Against Toxoplasmosis by Identifying Routes of Transmission Using Sporozoite-specific Serological Tools
Gregory Milne, Joanne P Webster, Martin Walker
Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2020; 71(10): e686
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50 2-Amino-1,3,4-thiadiazoles as prospective agents in trypanosomiasis and other parasitoses
Georgeta Serban
Acta Pharmaceutica. 2020; 70(3): 259
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51 Prevalence of seropositivity for toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in the Brazilian Federal District from 2014 to 2018
Fernando Saab, Benigno Da Rocha, Cristina Abreu
International Journal for Innovation Education and Research. 2020; 8(10): 346
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52 Infection with Toxoplasma gondii can promote chronic liver diseases in HIV-infected individuals
Ihor H. Hryzhak
Folia Parasitologica. 2020; 67
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
53 Deep-sea corals provide new insight into the ecology, evolution, and the role of plastids in widespread apicomplexan symbionts of anthozoans
Samuel A. Vohsen, Kaitlin E. Anderson, Andrea M. Gade, Harald R. Gruber-Vodicka, Richard P. Dannenberg, Eslam O. Osman, Nicole Dubilier, Charles R. Fisher, Iliana B. Baums
Microbiome. 2020; 8(1)
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54 New findings useful for clinical practice using swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography in the follow-up of active ocular toxoplasmosis
João Rafael de Oliveira Dias, Camila Campelo, Eduardo Amorim Novais, Gabriel Costa de Andrade, Paula Marinho, Yusláy Fernández Zamora, Luciana Finamor Peixoto, Maurício Maia, Heloísa Nascimento, Rubens Belfort
International Journal of Retina and Vitreous. 2020; 6(1)
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55 Infectious Causation of Abnormal Host Behavior: Toxoplasma gondii and Its Potential Association With Dopey Fox Syndrome
Gregory Milne, Chelsea Fujimoto, Theodor Bean, Harry J. Peters, Martin Hemmington, Charly Taylor, Robert C. Fowkes, Henny M. Martineau, Clare M. Hamilton, Martin Walker, Judy A. Mitchell, Elsa Léger, Simon L. Priestnall, Joanne P. Webster
Frontiers in Psychiatry. 2020; 11
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56 Implications of TORCH Diseases in Retinal Development—Special Focus on Congenital Toxoplasmosis
Viviane Souza de Campos, Karin C. Calaza, Daniel Adesse
Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology. 2020; 10
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
57 A Comparison of Stage Conversion in the Coccidian Apicomplexans Toxoplasma gondii, Hammondia hammondi, and Neospora caninum
Sarah L. Sokol-Borrelli, Rachel S. Coombs, Jon P. Boyle
Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology. 2020; 10
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58 Clusters of Toxoplasmosis in Gyodong-Myeon and Samsan-Myeon, Ganghwa-Gun, Korea
Woojin Kim, Yoon Kyung Chang, Tong-Soo Kim, Sung-Jong Hong, Hye-Jin Ahn, Ho-Woo Nam, Dongjae Kim
The Korean Journal of Parasitology. 2020; 58(5): 493
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59 Toxoplasmosis: A Link To Mental Illness
Oladapo IP
Global Journal of Zoology. 2020; : 025
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
60 Overlapping Spectrum of Retinochoroidal Scarring in Congenital Zika Virus and Toxoplasmosis Infections
Irena Tsui, Luiza M. Neves, Kristina Adachi, Stephanie L. Gaw, Jose Paulo Pereira, Patricia Brasil, Karin Nielsen-Saines, Maria Elisabeth Lopes Moreira, Andrea A. Zin
Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers and Imaging Retina. 2019; 50(12): 779
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
61 Protein O-fucosyltransferase 2–mediated O-glycosylation of the adhesin MIC2 is dispensable for Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoite infection
Sachin Khurana, Michael J. Coffey, Alan John, Alessandro D. Uboldi, My-Hang Huynh, Rebecca J. Stewart, Vern B. Carruthers, Christopher J. Tonkin, Ethan D. Goddard-Borger, Nichollas E. Scott
Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2019; 294(5): 1541
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62 Development of reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) as a diagnostic tool of Toxoplasma gondii in pork
Daofeng Qu,Huaiyu Zhou,Jianzhong Han,Siyue Tao,Bailing Zheng,Na Chi,Chunlei Su,Aifang Du
Veterinary Parasitology. 2013; 192(1-3): 98
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63 Development of reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) as a diagnostic tool of Toxoplasma gondii in pork
Qu, D. and Zhou, H. and Han, J. and Tao, S. and Zheng, B. and Chi, N. and Su, C. and Du, A.
Veterinary Parasitology. 2013; 192(1-3): 98-103
64 Innovation for the æBottom 100 millionæ: Eliminating neglected tropical diseases in the Americas
Hotez, P.J. and Dumonteil, E. and Heffernan, M.J. and Bottazzi, M.E.
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. 2013; 764: 1-12
65 A surge in the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among the residents of islands in Gangwha-gun, Incheon, Korea
Yang, Z. and Cho, P.Y. and Ahn, S.K. and Ahn, H.-J. and Kim, T.-S. and Chong, C.-K. and Hong, S.-J. and Cha, S.H. and Nam, H.-W.
Korean Journal of Parasitology. 2012; 50(3): 191-197
66 A Surge in the Seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis among the Residents of Islands in Gangwha-gun, Incheon, Korea
Zhaoshou Yang,Pyo Yun Cho,Seong Kyu Ahn,Hye-Jin Ahn,Tong-Soo Kim,Chom-Kyu Chong,Sung-Jong Hong,Seok Ho Cha,Ho-Woo Nam
The Korean Journal of Parasitology. 2012; 50(3): 191
[Pubmed] | [DOI]


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