Journal of Global Infectious DiseasesOfficial Publishing of INDUSEM and OPUS 12 Foundation, Inc. Users online:5243  
Print this pageEmail this pageSmall font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size     
Home About us Editors Ahead of Print Current Issue Archives Search Instructions Subscribe Advertise Login 

LETTER TO EDITOR Table of Contents   
Year : 2009  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 75-76
Cholera outbreaks in Iran and duration time of outbreaks

BMSU, Tehran, Iran

Click here for correspondence address and email

Date of Web Publication29-Jun-2009

How to cite this article:
Tavana A. Cholera outbreaks in Iran and duration time of outbreaks. J Global Infect Dis 2009;1:75-6

How to cite this URL:
Tavana A. Cholera outbreaks in Iran and duration time of outbreaks. J Global Infect Dis [serial online] 2009 [cited 2021 Oct 23];1:75-6. Available from:


This letter focuses on cholera outbreaks in Iran and their duration. V. cholerae still causes infection in different countries and no one knows the relationship between cholera outbreaks and their duration in the community. Cholera is still an important infectious disease in the world, particularly in developing countries and could be transmitted primarily by ingestion of V. cholerae via contaminated water or food. [1] Cholera is still a major problem in many countries whether in developing or developed countries. [2],[3],[4],[5],[6],[7] Little is known regarding the relationship between cholera and duration of the outbreak. However a few studies have showed a strong relationship with other possible links such as rainfall [8] , and its seasonal distribution. [9] Also little is known about the duration of cholera outbreaks. The purpose of this study was to discover the relationship between duration and cholera outbreaks. Therefore, in this cross-sectional study the relationship of duration with outbreaks of cholera was investigated for seven years (2000-06) in Iran. In this regard the duration and cases with places of outbreak were recorded across the country. The data were simultaneously input to a computer with the co-operation of the Iran Center of Diseases Control in the Ministry of Health. Data were analyzed and compared with SPSS version 11.5. The results of this study are shown in [Table 1] and [Figure 1].

The link between climatic factors and bacterial diseases including V.cholera has been described before. [10],[11] In our study we have found that the duration of outbreak is different year by year, for example in year 2005 in total 1112 cases of cholera in Inaba serogroup and 21 cases of Ogawa serogroup were seen within only 97 days; however in 2001 in total 26 cases of Inaba sero group and 104 cases of Ogawa serogroup of cholera were seen within 151 days. In 2002 118 cases of Ogawa were seen, in 2003 only 69 cases of Ogawa serogroup were seen. In addition in 2004, 94 cases of Ogawa serogroup were reported and finally in 2005, 1133 cases of cholera (1112 cases of Inaba serogroup and 21 cases of Ogawa) were seen. In addition, no cases of Hikojima serogroup were seen at the time of this study. Twenty-four cases of cholera (20 cases of Inaba and 4 cases of Ogawa) were reported in 2006 too within 157 days. It could be concluded that a possible link may be present between duration of outbreak with minimum 66 and maximum 169 days as recorded in our study. In addition, most of the outbreaks happened in warm seasons (end of spring and summer) therefore, the time of outbreak needs much more care during the detection of V.cholera by laboratory physicians. Further research could provide more details. It appears that the duration of outbreaks depends on the serogroups. It could be concluded that serogroup variation is present in the outbreaks in the community and perhaps has a link to duration as well.

   References Top

1.Melnick J. Adelberg's Medical Microbiology. in: Brooks GF, Butel JS, Carroll KC, Morse SA, editors. 2007.  Back to cited text no. 1    
2.Lipp EK, Huq A, Colwell RR. Effects of global climate on infectious disease: The cholera model. Clin Microbiol Rev 2002;15:757-70  Back to cited text no. 2  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]
3.Gil AI, Louis VR, Rivera IN, Lipp E, Huq A, Lanata CF, et al . Occurrence and distribution of Vibrio cholerae in the coastal environment of Peru. Environ Microbiol 2004;6:699-706.  Back to cited text no. 3  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]
4.Rowland MG. The Gambia and Bangladesh: The seasons and diarrhea. Dialogue Diarrhea 1986;26:3.  Back to cited text no. 4    
5.Borroto RJ, Martinez-Piedra R. Geographical patterns of cholera in Mexico, 1991-1996. Int J Epidemiol 2000;29:764-72.  Back to cited text no. 5  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]
6.Lomov IuM, Medinskiĭ GM, Pinigin AF, Kolesnikov NN, Ganin VS, et al . The characteristic properties of Vibrio cholerae eltor isolated from environmental objects on the territory of the former USSR during the 7 th cholera pandemic. Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol 1994;2:11-5.  Back to cited text no. 6    
7.World Health Organization 2007 and Hashizume M, Armstrong B, Hajat S, Wagatsuma Y, Faruque AS, Hayashi T, et al. The effect of rainfall on the incidence of cholera in Bangladesh. Epidemiology 2008;19:103-10.  Back to cited text no. 7    
8.Venkateswaran K, Takai T, Navarro IM, Nakano H, Hashimoto H, Siebeling RJ. Ecology of Vibrio cholerae non-O1 and Salmonella spp. and role of zooplankton in their seasonal distribution in Fukuyama coastal waters, Japan. Appl Environ Microbiol 1989;55:1591-8.  Back to cited text no. 8    
9.Alam M, Hasan NA, Sadique A, Bhuiyan NA, Ahmed KU, Nusrin S, et al . Seasonal cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae serogroups O1 and O139 in the coastal aquatic environment of Bangladesh. Appl Environ Microbiol 2006;72:4096-104.  Back to cited text no. 9  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]
10.O'Shea ML, Field R. Detection and disinfection of pathogens in storm-generated flows. Can J Microbiol 1992;38:267-76.  Back to cited text no. 10  [PUBMED]  
11.Hales S, Weinstein P, Souares Y, Woodward A. El Niρo and the dynamics of vector borne disease transmission. Environ Health Perspect 1999;107:99-102.  Back to cited text no. 11  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]

Correspondence Address:
Ali Tavana
BMSU, Tehran
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0974-777X.52988

Rights and Permissions


  [Figure 1]

  [Table 1]

This article has been cited by
1 Cholera: a great global concern
Shyamapada Mandal, Manisha Deb Mandal, Nishith Kumar Pal
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine. 2011; 4(7): 573
[VIEW] | [DOI]


    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

    Article Figures
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded130    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 1    

Recommend this journal

Sitemap | What's New | Feedback | Copyright and Disclaimer | Contact Us
2008 Journal of Global Infectious Diseases | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 10th December, 2008