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   2009| July-December  | Volume 1 | Issue 2  
    Online since October 3, 2009

 
 
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ELECTRONIC EPIDEMIOLOGY
Current status of HIV/AIDS in South Asia
Chaturaka Rodrigo, Senaka Rajapakse
July-December 2009, 1(2):93-101
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.56249  PMID:20300398
Background: According to the United Nations Joint Program on HIV/AIDS, 33.2 million adults and children are living with the infection worldwide. Of these, two to three million are estimated to be in South Asia. All countries of the region have a low prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, it is important to review the current epidemiological data to identify the trends of infection as it would have implications on prevention. Materials and Methods: We performed a MEDLINE search using phrases 'South Asia' plus 'HIV' , 'AIDS', and names of individual countries in South Asia (limits: articles published in last 10 years, in English language). Clinical trials, reviews, meta-analyses, letters, editorials, and practice guidelines were all considered. The following countries were included as belonging to South Asia; Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Recent estimates and data on country status, and details of national control programs were obtained from websites of international agencies such as the World Bank and United Nations Joint Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). Results and Discussion: This review looks into many aspects of HIV infection in South Asia including country profiles with regard to infection, economic and psychological burden of illness and treatment issues in the South Asian context.
  8 4,296 342
CLINICAL INVESTIGATION
Extended spectrum beta-lactamase detection in gram-negative bacilli of nosocomial origin
Dechen C Tsering, Shyamasree Das, Luna Adhiakari, Ranabir Pal, Takhellambam S.K Singh
July-December 2009, 1(2):87-92
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.56247  PMID:20300397
Background: Resistance to third generation cephalosporins by acquisition and expression of extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) enzymes among gram-negative bacilli is on a rise. The presence of ESBL producing organisms significantly affects the course and outcome of an infection and poses a challenge to infection management worldwide. Materials and Methods: In the period from June 2007 to 2008, we collected 1489 samples from patients suspected of nosocomial infection. The isolates were identified based on colony morphology and biochemical reaction. Gram negative bacilli resistant to third generation cephalosporins were tested for ESBL by double disc synergy test (DDST- a screening test )and then phenotypic confirmatory test. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done by modified Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Results: From the sample of 238 gram-negative bacilli, we isolated Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter freundii, Proteus mirabilis, Morganella morganii and Enterobacter cloacae. Following both methods, 34% isolates were ESBL-positive. The ESBL producing isolates were significantly resistant (p < 0.01) to ampicillin, piperacillin, piperacillin/tazobactam, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin as compared to non-ESBL producers. Multidrug resistance was significantly (p < 0.01) higher (69.14%) in ESBL positive isolates than non-ESBL isolates (21.66%). Conclusion: High prevalence of ESBL in our hospital cannot be ignored. ESBL producers can be detected by DDST and phenotypic confirmatory test with equal efficacy. The sensitivity of screening test improved with the use of more than one antibiotic and addition of one or two antibiotics would not increase cost and labor. We recommend DDST using multiple antibiotics in all microbiology units as a routine screening test.
  4 5,399 575
PRACTITIONER SECTION
The Rise of an oppurtunistic infection called "Invasive zygomycosis"
Abdelkarim Waness, Ghuzayel Al Dawsari, Hamdan Al Jahdali
July-December 2009, 1(2):131-138
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.56256  PMID:20300403
Invasive zygomycosis is a devastating fungal infection seen mostly in immune-compromised patients. We present a case of a 48-year old diabetic man, with aplastic anemia, who developed severe pulmonary mucormycosis that led to his rapid demise despite early diagnosis and treatment with liposomal amphotericin B. We also conducted an extensive review of the pathogenesis of invasive zygomycosis, its history, predisposing factors, clinical aspects, diagnostic modalities, treatment options, morbidity and mortality.
  3 4,738 240
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Periodontitis, a true infection
Rajiv Saini, PP Marawar, Sujata Shete, Santosh Saini
July-December 2009, 1(2):149-150
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.56251  PMID:20300407
  2 3,098 147
PUBLIC HEALTH RESEARCH
Anamnestic immune response to dengue and decreased severity of yellow fever
Ricardo O Izurieta, Maurizio Macaluso, Douglas M Watts, Robert B Tesh, Bolivar Guerra, Ligia M Cruz, Sagar Galwankar, Sten H Vermund
July-December 2009, 1(2):111-116
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.56257  PMID:20300401
A protective immunity against yellow fever, from cross-reactive dengue antibodies, has been hypothesized as an explanation for the absence of yellow fever in Southern Asia where dengue immunity is almost universal. This study evaluates the association between protective immunity from cross-reactive dengue antibodies with yellow fever infection and severity of the disease. The study population consisted of military personnel of a jungle garrison and its detachments located in the Ecuadorian Amazonian rainforest. The cross-sectional study employed interviews as well as seroepidemiological methods. Humoral immune response to yellow fever, Mayaro, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Oropouche, and dengue 2 infections was assessed by evaluating IgM and IgG specific antibodies. Log-linear regression analysis was used to evaluate age and presence of antibodies, against dengue type 2 virus, as predictors of yellow fever infection or severe disease. During the seroepidemiological survey, presence of dengue antibodies among yellow fever cases were observed in 77.3% cases from the coastal region, where dengue is endemic, 14.3% cases from the Amazon and 16.7 % cases from the Andean region. Dengue cross-reactive antibodies were not significantly associated with yellow fever infection but significantly associated with severity of the disease. The findings of this study suggest that previous exposure to dengue infection may have induced an anamnestic immune response that did not prevent yellow fever infection but greatly reduced the severity of the disease.
  2 5,085 161
BASIC SCIENCE STUDY
Antibiotic sensitivity and plasmid profiles of Escherichia coli isolated from pediatric diarrhea
Babu Uma, Kesani Prabhakar, Saddayappan Rajendran, Kannaiyan Kavitha, Yelavarthi Lakshmi Sarayu
July-December 2009, 1(2):107-110
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.56255  PMID:20300400
Background : The emergence of drug resistance among diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) in the pediatric population is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Material and Methods: Isolation and identification of E. coli strains from stool specimens are carried out according to standard techniques. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using disc-diffusion method. Plasmid profiling and conjugation experiments were done to analyze the antibiotic resistance transfer from one bacterium cell to another through plasmid. Results: Out of 170 pediatric diarrheal samples, 105 (61.76%) E. coli strains were isolated. About 90% of E. coli strains were resistant to most of the antimicrobial agents tested. All the isolates were resistant to ampicillin, imipenem and cotrimoxazole and were sensitive to amikacin. The resistance to antibiotics shows 29 different antibiotic resistance patterns. About 67 (64%) strains of E. coli isolates harbored plasmids, and 51 (76.1%) of them were able to transfer their plasmids. The plasmid sizes ranged from 1.0 to 25 kb, the most common plasmid of size 4.8 kb being detected in all the plasmid-harbored E. coli strains. The results of transconjugation show that all the transconjugant colonies were carrying 4.8-kb plasmid and were resistant to ampicillin, imipenem and cotrimoxazole. Conclusion: There is an increase in the prevalence of drug resistance among E. coli isolates, and conjugal transfer of plasmids has greatly contributed to the rapid spread of antibiotic resistance among E. coli isolates.
  1 3,604 235
CASE REVIEW
The case of the infection that wasn't !
Jennifer Eatrides, Veronica T Tucci, Richard Schrot
July-December 2009, 1(2):139-143
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.56246  PMID:20300404
Eosinophilic esophagitis is an under-recognized inflammatory disorder of the esophagus. It has been frequently diagnosed in pediatric patients; however, over the last few years, there has been an increase in the number of cases recognized in adults as well. Despite this fact, eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is often a delayed diagnosis in the primary care setting due to the overlapping symptoms it shares with other esophageal and gastrointestinal disorders such as gastroesophageal reflux disease and gastroenteritis, as well as a lack of awareness among physicians who see adult patients. We performed an exhaustive search of the literature, which revealed over 400 articles on EE; however, most were reported in gastroenterology or autoimmune specialty journals. We report a case of eosinophilic esophagitis in a 39-year-old man who presented with persistent epigastric abdominal pain and who was diagnosed via endoscopy and biopsy.
  1 2,025 153
GEOGRAPHIC MEDICINE
Insecticides susceptibility status of the bedbugs (Cimex lectularius) in a rural area of Magugu, Northern Tanzania
Eliningaya J Kweka, Beda J Mwang'onde, Epiphania E Kimaro, Shandala Msangi, Filemoni Tenu, Aneth M Mahande
July-December 2009, 1(2):102-106
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.56252  PMID:20300399
The recent spread of bedbugs, Cimex lectularius L. (Heteroptera: Cimicidae), has received attention of the public health sector for designing of effective plan of action for control. Several studies have focused on determining the distribution and abundance of bedbug populations in tropical areas. This study establishes baseline information on deltamethrin, permethrin, alphacypermethrin, lambdacypermethrin and K-O tab susceptibility status in a bedbug population collected from Magugu area in northern Tanzania. The evolution of insecticide resistance could be a primary factor in explaining this resurgence of bedbugs in many areas, both rural and urban. Evaluation of the bedbug population from houses in Magugu indicates that the population of bedbugs is susceptible to pyrethroid insecticides, which are commonly used. Without the development of new tactics for bedbug resistance management, further escalation of this public health problem should be expected when resistant gene spreads within the population. These results suggest that although all concentrations kill bedbugs, more evaluations should be done using WHO kits and mechanisms involved in pyrethroid resistance should be evaluated, such as metabolic and knockdown resistance gene, to have a broad picture for better design of control methodologies.
  1 3,135 155
GLOBAL HEALTH REPORT
Mitigation approaches to combat the flu pandemic
Raman Chawla, Rakesh Kumar Sharma, Deepali Madaan, Neha Dubey, Rajesh Arora, Rajeev Goel, Shefali Singh, Vinod Kaushik, Pankaj Kumar Singh, Vivek Chabbra, Janak Raj Bhardwaj
July-December 2009, 1(2):117-130
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.56258  PMID:20300402
Management of flu pandemic is a perpetual challenge for the medical fraternity since time immemorial. Animal to human transmission has been observed thrice in the last century within an average range of 11-39 years of antigenic recycling. The recent outbreak of influenza A (H1N1, also termed as swine flu), first reported in Mexico on April 26, 2009, occurred in the forty first year since last reported flu pandemic (July 1968). Within less than 50 days, it has assumed pandemic proportions (phase VI) affecting over 76 countries with 163 deaths/35,928 cases (as on 15 th June 2009). It indicated the re-emergence of genetically reassorted virus having strains endemic to humans, swine and avian (H5N1). The World Health Organisation (WHO) member states have already pulled up their socks and geared up to combat such criticalities. Earlier outbreaks of avian flu (H5N1) in different countries led WHO to develop pandemic preparedness strategies with national/regional plans on pandemic preparedness. Numerous factors related to climatic conditions, socio-economic strata, governance and sharing of information/logistics at all levels have been considered critical indicators in monitoring the dynamics of escalation towards a pandemic situation. The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), Government of India, with the active cooperation of UN agencies and other stakeholders/experts has formulated a concept paper on role of nonhealth service providers during pandemics in April 2008 and released national guidelines - management of biological disasters in July 2008. These guidelines enumerate that the success of medical management endeavors like pharmaceutical (anti-viral Oseltamivir and Zanamivir therapies), nonpharmaceutical interventions and vaccination development etc., largely depends on level of resistance offered by mutagenic viral strain and rationale use of pharmaco therapeutic interventions. This article describes the mitigation approach to combat flu pandemic with its effective implementation at national, state and local levels.
  1 4,776 231
PICTORIAL EDUCATION
Biliary ascariasis on magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography
Mohammad A Hashmi, Jevan K De
July-December 2009, 1(2):144-145
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.56248  PMID:20300405
A 17-year-old girl presented with features of biliary obstruction. Magnetic resonance cholangi-pancreatography revealed typical linear signals in common bile duct, which appears like Ascaris lumbricoides. The diagnosis was confirmed by endoscopic removal of the worm.
  1 1,964 93
CASE REPORT
Rhabdomyolysis in a child secondary to Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis
Srinivas Bandi, Ashish Chikermane
July-December 2009, 1(2):146-148
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.56250  PMID:20300406
Rhabdomyolysis secondary to bacterial infection has only rarely been investigated, and there are case reports of the same mainly in adults. This article describes the first reported case of rhabdomyolysis in a child secondary to Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis. A 12-year-old child presented with myalgia, pyrexia and dark urine and was found to have infective endocarditis due to S. aureus.
  - 2,149 118
EDITORIAL
State of the globe: Evaluating the existence of extended spectrum beta lactamases
Stephen E Mshana
July-December 2009, 1(2):85-86
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.56245  PMID:20300396
  - 1,788 284
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Urinary tract abscess in nephrectomized renal transplant recipient
Reza Afshar, Siamak Afshin-Majd, Suzan Sanavi
July-December 2009, 1(2):150-151
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.56253  PMID:20300408
  - 1,531 64
Association of urinary tract infection in women with bacterial vaginosis
AH Sumati, NK Saritha
July-December 2009, 1(2):151-152
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.56254  PMID:20300409
  - 2,771 154
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2008 Journal of Global Infectious Diseases | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 10th December, 2008