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Role of serum lactate and malarial retinopathy in prognosis and outcome of falciparum and vivax cerebral Malaria: A prospective cohort study in adult assamese tribes
Kaustubh Suresh Chaudhari, Sahil Prashant Uttarwar, Nikhil Narayan Tambe, Rohan S Sharma, Anant Arunrao Takalkar
April-June 2016, 8(2):61-67
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.177524  PMID:27293360
Introduction: There is no comprehensive data or studies relating to clinical presentation and prognosis of cerebral malaria (CM) in the tribal settlements of Assam. High rates of transmission and deaths from complicated malaria guided us to conduct a prospective observational cohort study to evaluate the factors associated with poor outcome and prognosis in patients of CM. Materials and Methods: We admitted 112 patients to the Bandarpara and Damodarpur Tribal Health Centers (THCs) between 2011 and 2013 with a strict diagnosis of CM. We assessed the role of clinical, fundoscopy and laboratory findings (mainly lactic acid) in the immediate outcome in terms of death and recovery, duration of hospitalization, neurocognitive impairment, cranial nerve palsies and focal neurological deficit. Results: The case fatality rate of CM was 33.03% and the prevalence of residual neurological sequelae at discharge was 16.07%. These are significantly higher than the previous studies. The mortality rate and neurological complications rate in patients with retinal whitening was 38.46% and 23.07%, with vessel changes was 25% and 18.75%, with retinal hemorrhage was 55.55% and 11.11% and with hyperlactatemia was 53.85% and 18.46%, respectively. Three patients of papilledema alone died. Conclusion: Our study suggests a strong correlation between hyperlactatemia, retinal changes (whitening, vessel changes and hemorrhage) and depth and duration of coma with longer duration of hospitalization, increased mortality, neurological sequelae and death. Plasmodium vivax mono-infection as a cause of CM has been confirmed. Prognostic evaluation of CM is useful for judicious allocation of resources in the THC.
  34,394 597 -
Human immunodeficiency virus and leishmaniasis
Navid Ezra, Maria Teresa Ochoa, Noah Craft
September-December 2010, 2(3):248-257
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.68528  PMID:20927287
The leishmaniases are a group of diseases transmitted to humans by the bite of a sandfly, caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. Various Leishmania species infect humans, producing a spectrum of clinical manifestations. It is estimated that 350 million people are at risk, with a global yearly incidence of 1-1.5 million for cutaneous and 500,000 for visceral leishmaniasis (VL). VL is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in East Africa, Brazil and the Indian subcontinent. Co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) alters the immune response to the disease. Here we review the immune response to Leishmania in the setting of HIV co-infection. Improved understanding of the immunology involved in co-infections may help in designing prophylactic and therapeutic strategies against leishmaniasis.
  31,252 235 16
Multidrug resistant Acinetobacter
Vikas Manchanda, Sinha Sanchaita, NP Singh
September-December 2010, 2(3):291-304
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.68538  PMID:20927292
Emergence and spread of Acinetobacter species, resistant to most of the available antimicrobial agents, is an area of great concern. It is now being frequently associated with healthcare associated infections. Literature was searched at PUBMED, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Library, using the terms 'Acinetobacter Resistance, multidrug resistant (MDR), Antimicrobial Therapy, Outbreak, Colistin, Tigecycline, AmpC enzymes, and carbapenemases in various combinations. The terms such as MDR, Extensively Drug Resistant (XDR), and Pan Drug Resistant (PDR) have been used in published literature with varied definitions, leading to confusion in the correlation of data from various studies. In this review various mechanisms of resistance in the Acinetobacter species have been discussed. The review also probes upon the current therapeutic options, including combination therapies available to treat infections due to resistant Acinetobacter species in adults as well as children. There is an urgent need to enforce infection control measures and antimicrobial stewardship programs to prevent the further spread of these resistant Acinetobacter species and to delay the emergence of increased resistance in the bacteria.
  16,771 396 20
The emergence of zika virus as a global health security threat: A review and a consensus statement of the INDUSEM Joint working Group (JWG)
Veronica Sikka, Vijay Kumar Chattu, Raaj K Popli, Sagar C Galwankar, Dhanashree Kelkar, Stanley G Sawicki, Stanislaw P Stawicki, Thomas J Papadimos
January-March 2016, 8(1):3-15
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.176140  PMID:27013839
The Zika virus (ZIKV), first discovered in 1947, has emerged as a global public health threat over the last decade, with the accelerated geographic spread of the virus noted during the last 5 years. The World Health Organization (WHO) predicts that millions of cases of ZIKV are likely to occur in the Americas during the next 12 months. These projections, in conjunction with suspected Zika-associated increase in newborn microcephaly cases, prompted WHO to declare public health emergency of international concern. ZIKV-associated illness is characterized by an incubation period of 3-12 days. Most patients remain asymptomatic (i.e., ~80%) after contracting the virus. When symptomatic, clinical presentation is usually mild and consists of a self-limiting febrile illness that lasts approximately 2-7 days. Among common clinical manifestations are fever, arthralgia, conjunctivitis, myalgia, headache, and maculopapular rash. Hospitalization and complication rates are low, with fatalities being extremely rare. Newborn microcephaly, the most devastating and insidious complication associated with the ZIKV, has been described in the offspring of women who became infected while pregnant. Much remains to be elucidated about the timing of ZIKV infection in the context of the temporal progression of pregnancy, the corresponding in utero fetal development stage(s), and the risk of microcephaly. Without further knowledge of the pathophysiology involved, the true risk of ZIKV to the unborn remains difficult to quantify and remediate. Accurate, portable, and inexpensive point-of-care testing is required to better identify cases and manage the current and future outbreaks of ZIKV, including optimization of preventive approaches and the identification of more effective risk reduction strategies. In addition, much more work needs to be done to produce an effective vaccine. Given the rapid geographic spread of ZIKV in recent years, a coordinated local, regional, and global effort is needed to generate sufficient resources and political traction to effectively halt and contain further expansion of the current outbreak.
  10,719 15 -
Novelties on amoebiasis: A neglected tropical disease
Cecilia Ximénez, Patricia Morán, Liliana Rojas, Alicia Valadez, Alejandro Gómez, Manuel Ramiro, René Cerritos, Enrique González, Eric Hernández, Partida Oswaldo
April-June 2011, 3(2):166-174
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.81695  PMID:21731305
In accordance with the 1997 documents of the World Health Organization (WHO), amoebiasis is defined as the infection by the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica with or without clinical manifestations. The only known natural host of E. histolytica is the human with the large intestine as major target organ. This parasite has a very simple life cycle in which the infective form is the cyst, considered a resistant form of parasite: The asymptomatic cyst passers and the intestinal amoebiasis patients are the transmitters; they excrete cysts in their feces, which can contaminate food and water sources. E. histolytica sensu stricto is the potentially pathogenic species and E. dispar is a commensal non-pathogenic Entamoeba. Both species are biochemical, immunological and genetically distinct. The knowledge of both species with different pathogenic phenotypes comes from a large scientific debate during the second half of the 20 th century, which gave place to the rapid development of diagnostics technology based on molecular and immunological strategies. During the last ten years, knowledge of the new epidemiology of amoebiasis in different geographic endemic and non-endemic areas has been obtained by applying mostly molecular techniques. In the present work we highlight novelties on human infection and the disease that can help the general physician from both endemic and non-endemic countries in their medical practice, particularly, now that emigration is undoubtedly a global phenomenon that is modifying the previous geography of infectious diseases worldwide.
  10,128 38 9
Leishmaniasis vaccine: Where are we today?
Lukasz Kedzierski
May-August 2010, 2(2):177-185
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.62881  PMID:20606974
Leishmaniasis is a disease that ranges in severity from skin lesions to serious disfigurement and fatal systemic infection. WHO has classified the disease as emerging and uncontrolled and estimates that the infection results in two million new cases a year. There are 12 million people currently infected worldwide, and leishmaniasis threatens 350 million people in 88 countries. Current treatment is based on chemotherapy, which relies on a handful of drugs with serious limitations such as high cost, toxicity, difficult route of administration and lack of efficacy in endemic areas. Vaccination remains the best hope for control of all forms of the disease, and the development of a safe, effective and affordable antileishmanial vaccine is a critical global public-health priority. Extensive evidence from studies in animal models indicates that solid protection can be achieved by immunization with defined subunit vaccines or live-attenuated strains of Leishmania. However, to date, no such vaccine is available despite substantial efforts by many laboratories. The major impediment in vaccine design is the translation of data from animal models to human disease, and the transition from the laboratory to the field. Furthermore, a thorough understanding of protective immune responses and generation and maintenance of the immunological memory, the most important and least-studied aspect of antiparasitic vaccine development, during Leishmania infection is needed. This review focuses on recent findings in antileishmania vaccine field and highlights current difficulties facing vaccine development and implementation.
  9,152 543 30
Approach to a patient with urosepsis
Om Prakash Kalra, Alpana Raizada
January-June 2009, 1(1):57-63
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.52984  PMID:20300389
Urinary tract infections can occur in all age groups and produce an exceptionally broad range of clinical syndromes ranging from asymptomatic bacteriuria to acute pyelonephritis with Gram negative sepsis to septic shock. In approximately one-quarter of all patients with sepsis, the focus of infection is localized to the urogenital tract. This may lead to substantial morbidity and significant economic implications. We present a review of the current approaches to managing urospesis.
  9,136 478 2
Extended-spectrum ß-lactamases in gram negative bacteria
Deepti Rawat, Deepthi Nair
September-December 2010, 2(3):263-274
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.68531  PMID:20927289
Extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBLs) are a group of plasmid-mediated, diverse, complex and rapidly evolving enzymes that are posing a major therapeutic challenge today in the treatment of hospitalized and community-based patients. Infections due to ESBL producers range from uncomplicated urinary tract infections to life-threatening sepsis. Derived from the older TEM is derived from Temoniera, a patient from whom the strain was first isolated in Greece. ß-lactamases, these enzymes share the ability to hydrolyze third-generation cephalosporins and aztreonam and yet are inhibited by clavulanic acid. In addition, ESBL-producing organisms exhibit co-resistance to many other classes of antibiotics, resulting in limitation of therapeutic option. Because of inoculum effect and substrate specificity, their detection is also a major challenge. At present, however, organizations such as the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (formerly the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards) provide guidelines for the detection of ESBLs in Klebsiella pneumoniae, K. oxytoca, Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis. In common to all ESBL-detection methods is the general principle that the activity of extended-spectrum cephalosporins against ESBL-producing organisms will be enhanced by the presence of clavulanic acid. Carbapenems are the treatment of choice for serious infections due to ESBL-producing organisms, yet carbapenem-resistant isolates have recently been reported. ESBLs represent an impressive example of the ability of gram-negative bacteria to develop new antibiotic-resistance mechanisms in the face of the introduction of new antimicrobial agents. Thus there is need for efficient infection-control practices for containment of outbreaks; and intervention strategies, e.g., antibiotic rotation to reduce further selection and spread of these increasingly resistant pathogens.
  9,019 394 9
Honey as an antimicrobial agent against Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from infected wounds
Vishnu Prasad Shenoy, Mamatha Ballal, PG Shivananda, Indira Bairy
April-June 2012, 4(2):102-105
Background: As natural products garner attention in the medical field due to emergence of antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria, honey is valued for its antibacterial activity. Objective: Fifty strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from infected wounds were evaluated for their antibacterial action using honey in comparison with different antibiotics and Dettol. Methodology and Results: All the strains were found to be sensitive to honey at a minimum inhibitory concentration of 20% in comparison with Dettol at 10% using agar dilution method. In the second step, the time kill assay was performed on five isolates of P. aeruginosa to demonstrate the bactericidal activity of honey at different dilutions of honey ranging from 20% to 100% at regular time intervals. All the isolates of P. aeruginosa tested were killed in 12-24 h depending on the dilutions of the honey tested. Thus, honey could prevent the growth of P. aeruginosa even if it was diluted by deionized water by fivefolds in vitro. Honey had almost uniform bactericidal activity against P. aeruginosa irrespective of their susceptibility to different classes of antibiotics. Conclusion: Honey which is a natural, non-toxic, and an inexpensive product has activity against the P. aeruginosa isolated from infected wounds may make it an alternative topical choice in the treatment of wound infections.
  7,605 17 3
Tuberculosis: Current situation, challenges and overview of its control programs in India
Gursimrat K Sandhu
April-June 2011, 3(2):143-150
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.81691  PMID:21731301
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most ancient diseases of mankind, with molecular evidence going back to over 17,000 years. In spite of newer modalities for diagnosis and treatment of TB, unfortunately, people are still suffering, and worldwide it is among the top 10 killer infectious diseases, second only to HIV. According to World Health Organization (WHO), TB is a worldwide pandemic. It is a leading cause of death among HIV-infected people. In India, historically speaking, fight against TB can be broadly classified into three periods: early period, before the discoveries of x-ray and chemotherapy; post-independence period, during which nationwide TB control programs were initiated and implemented; and the current period, during which the ongoing WHO-assisted TB control program is in place. Today, India's DOTS (directly observed treatment-short course) program is the fastest-expanding and the largest program in the world in terms of patients initiated on treatment; and the second largest, in terms of population coverage. Major challenges to control TB in India include poor primary health-care infrastructure in rural areas of many states; unregulated private health care leading to widespread irrational use of first-line and second-line anti-TB drugs; spreading HIV infection; lack of political will; and, above all, corrupt administration. Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) is another emerging threat to TB eradication and is a result of deficient or deteriorating TB control program. WHO with its "STOP TB" strategy has given a vision to eliminate TB as a public health problem from the face of this earth by 2050. For this review article, data available at the official websites of WHO; and from the Ministry of Health, Government of India, were consulted, and search engines PubMed; and Google Scholar; were used.
  7,518 17 12
Combination vaccines
David AG Skibinski, Barbara C Baudner, Manmohan Singh, Derek T O'Hagan
January-March 2011, 3(1):63-72
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.77298  PMID:21572611
The combination of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccines into a single product has been central to the protection of the pediatric population over the past 50 years. The addition of inactivated polio, Haemophilus influenzae, and hepatitis B vaccines into the combination has facilitated the introduction of these vaccines into recommended immunization schedules by reducing the number of injections required and has therefore increased immunization compliance. However, the development of these combinations encountered numerous challenges, including the reduced response to Haemophilus influenzae vaccine when given in combination; the need to consolidate the differences in the immunization schedule (hepatitis B); and the need to improve the safety profile of the diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis combination. Here, we review these challenges and also discuss future prospects for combination vaccines.
  7,220 34 8
Serum procalcitonin in viral and bacterial meningitis
Usama M Alkholi, Nermin Abd Al-monem, Ayman A Abd El-Azim, Mohamed H Sultan
January-March 2011, 3(1):14-18
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.77290  PMID:21572603
Background: In children with meningitis, there is a difficulty to verify the etiology as viral or bacterial. Therefore, intensive research has been carried out to find new and rapid diagnostic methods for differentiating bacterial from viral meningitis. Objectives: The aim of this work was to study the behavior of procalcitonin (PCT) and whether it can be used to differentiate children with bacterial from those with viral meningitis. We also compared PCT to C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell count. Patients and Methods: Forty children aged from 4 months to 12 years with clinically suspected meningitis were studied. Lumbar punctures were done for all cases before starting initial antibiotic treatment. According to the results of bacterial cultures and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytochemical profile, our patients were classified into two groups: bacterial meningitis group and viral meningitis group. PCT, CRP, and leukocyte count were measured at the time of admission and after 3 days. Results: PCT levels were significantly higher in patients with bacterial meningitis (mean, 24.8 ng/ml) compared to patients with viral meningitis (mean, 0.3 ng/ml) (P<0.001). PCT levels in bacterial meningitis group decreased after 3 days of starting treatment, but remained higher than viral meningitis group (mean, 10.5 ng/ml). All CSF parameters, blood leukocytes, and CRP showed overlapping values between the two groups. Serum PCT with cut off value >2 ng/ml showed sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 100%, 66%, 68%, and 100%, respectively, for the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. Conclusion: Serum procalcitonin level has a better diagnostic and prognostic value than CRP or leukocyte count to distinguish between bacterial and viral meningitis. It is also a good indicator of the efficacy of treatment of bacterial meningitis.
  6,873 38 18
Infection control and practice of standard precautions among healthcare workers in northern Nigeria
OE Amoran, OO Onwube
October-December 2013, 5(4):156-163
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.122010  PMID:24672178
Background: Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) have been reported to be a serious problem in the healthcare services as they are common causes of illness and mortality among hospitalized patients including healthcare workers (HCWs). Compliance with these standard precautions has been shown to reduce the risk of exposure to blood and body fluids. Aims: This study therefore assesses the level of knowledge and compliance with standard precautions by the various cadre of HCWs and the factors influencing compliance in hospital environment in Nasarawa State, Northern Nigeria. Settings and Design: Nasarawa State has a current human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) prevalence rate of 10.0%, which was higher than most states in Nigeria with a high level of illiteracy and ignorance. Majority of the people reside in the rural areas while a few are found in the towns, informal settlements with no direct access to healthcare facilities are common. Materials and Methods: This study is an analytical, cross-sectional study. Proportional sampling technique was used to obtain a representative sample and a structured self-administered questionnaire was used to collect relevant information from the healthcare providers working in Nasarawa State from January to February 2009. Statistical analysis used: To describe patient characteristics, we calculated proportions and medians. For categorical variables, we compared proportions using chi-square tests. A logistic regression model was produced with infection control as outcome variable to identify associated factors. Results: A total of 421 HCWs were interviewed, Majority (77.9%) correctly describe universal precaution and infection control with 19.2, 19.2, and 28.0%, respectively unable to recognize vaccination, postexposure prophylaxis, and surveillance for emerging diseases as standard precaution for infection control. About 70.1% usually wear gloves before handling patients or patients' care products, 12.6% reported wash their hand before wearing the gloves, 10.7% washed hands after removal of gloves, and 72.4% changed gloves after each patient. Only 3.3% had a sharp disposal system in their various workplaces. Majority (98.6%) of the respondents reported that the major reason for noncompliance to universal precautions is the nonavailability of the equipments. There was a statistically significant difference in the practice of standard precaution among those that were exposed to blood products and body fluid compared to those that had not been exposed in the last 6 months (c2 = 3.96, P = 0.03), public healthcare providers when compared to private health workers (c2 = 22.32, P = 0.001), among those working in secondary and tertiary facilities compared to primary healthcare centers (c2 = 14.64, P = 0.001) and urban areas when compared to rural areas (c2 = 4.06, P = 0.02). The only predictor of practice of standard precaution was exposure to blood and body fluid in the last 6 months odds ratio (OR) = 4.56 (confidence interval (CI) = 1.00-21.28). Conclusions: This study implies that inadequate workers' knowledge and environment related problems, including the lack of protective materials and other equipments and utilities required to ensure safety of HCWs is a crucial issue that need urgent attention. Institution of a surveillance system for hospital acquired infection to improve consistent use of standard precautions among health workers is recommended in Nigeria and other low income countries in Africa.
  6,647 31 1
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus: Prevalence and current susceptibility pattern in Sikkim
Dechen C Tsering, Ranabir Pal, Sumit Kar
January-March 2011, 3(1):9-13
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.77289  PMID:21572602
Background: Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains is reported to be increasing globally. Objectives: The study was conducted to find the magnitude and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of MRSA infection in a referral tertiary care teaching hospital of Sikkim, India. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 827 clinical specimens were collected from different departments of Central Referral Hospital. One hundred and ninety-six carrier screening nasal swabs were obtained from health care workers of the hospital. Subsequently, the antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed for the confirmed MRSA isolates as per Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Results: Methicillin resistance was seen in 152 isolates of S. aureus - 111 from clinical specimens and 41 from carrier screening samples. MRSA positivity among males was significantly higher than females. Extremely significant MRSA-positive cases were observed from ages less than 30 years, in-patient cases, particularly with a stay of more than 15 days and with a previous history of intake of broad spectrum antibiotics. Incidentally, there was no significant difference of MRSA positivity with a previous history of hospitalization. The extent of MRSA and drug resistance pattern was significantly different among various samples of S. aureus-positive isolates. The strains tested exhibited decreased susceptibility to vancomycin and imipenem. Most vulnerable of the carrier were the cleaners, that was a significant observation. Incidentally, there was no resistance in the carriers to both vancomycin and imipenem. Conclusion: MRSA is prevalent in our hospital and strains resistant to methicillin and vancomycin were quite high.
  6,211 30 5
An update on crimean congo hemorrhagic fever
Suma B Appannanavar, Baijayantimala Mishra
July-September 2011, 3(3):285-292
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.83537  PMID:21887063
Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is one of the deadly hemorrhagic fevers that are endemic in Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe, and the Middle East. It is a tick-borne zoonotic viral disease caused by CCHF virus of genus Nairovirus (family Bunyaviridae). CCHF not only forms an important public health threat but has a significant effect on the healthcare personnel, especially in resource-poor countries. India was always a potentially endemic area until an outbreak hit parts of Gujarat, taking four lives including the treating medical team. The current review is an attempt to summarize the updated knowledge on the disease particularly in modern era, with special emphasis on nosocomial infections. The knowledge about the disease may help answer certain questions regarding entry of virus in India and future threat to community.
  6,134 27 23
The laboratorial diagnosis of dengue: Applications and implications
Nina Rocha Dutra, Marilia Barbosa de Paula, Michelle Dias de Oliveira, Leandro Licursi de Oliveira, Sergio Oliveira de Paula
January-June 2009, 1(1):38-44
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.52980  PMID:20300385
The diagnosis of infection by the dengue virus relies, in most cases, on the clinical judgment of the patient, since only a few major centers have clinical laboratories that offer diagnostic tests to confirm the clinical impressions of an infection. At present, routine laboratory diagnosis is done by different kinds of testing. Among them are the methods of serological research, virus isolation, detection of viral antigens, and detection of viral genomes. The continued development of diagnostic tests, which are cheap, sensitive, specific, easy to perform, and capable of giving early diagnosis of the dengue virus infection is still a need. There are also other obstacles that are not specifically related to the technological development of diagnostic methods. For instance, infrastructure of the laboratories, the training of personnel, and the capacity of research of these laboratories are still limited in many parts of Brazil and the world, where dengue is endemic. Clinical laboratories, especially the ones that serve regions with a high incidence of dengue, should be aware of all the diagnostic methods available for routine these days, and choose the one that best suit their working conditions and populations served, in order to save lives.
  5,457 646 -
Quinolone and cephalosporin resistance in enteric fever
Malini Rajinder Capoor, Deepthi Nair
September-December 2010, 2(3):258-262
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.68529  PMID:20927288
Enteric fever is a major public health problem in developing countries. Ciprofloxacin resistance has now become a norm in the Indian subcontinent. Novel molecular substitutions may become frequent in future owing to selective pressures exerted by the irrational use of ciprofloxacin in human and veterinary therapeutics, in a population endemic with nalidixic acid-resistant strains. The therapeutics of ciprofloxacin-resistant enteric fever narrows down to third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, azithromycin, tigecycline and penems. The first-line antimicrobials ampicillin, chloramphenicol and co-trimoxazole need to be rolled back. Antimicrobial surveillance coupled with molecular analysis of fluoroquinolone resistance is warranted for reconfirming novel and established molecular patterns for therapeutic reappraisal and for novel-drug targets. This review explores the antimicrobial resistance and its molecular mechanisms, as well as novel drugs in the therapy of enteric fever.
  5,923 158 2
Bacteriological profile of septicemia and the risk factors in neonates and infants in Sikkim
Dechen C Tsering, L Chanchal, Ranabir Pal, Sumit Kar
January-March 2011, 3(1):42-45
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.77295  PMID:21572608
Background: Bacterial infections remain an important cause of pediatric mortality and morbidity. It might be possible to reduce these factors by early diagnosis and proper management. Aim: The aim of the study was to analyze the bacteriological profiles with their antibiogram, and to register the risk factors for septicemia in neonates and infants. Setting and design: This observational cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital at Gangtok, Sikkim, India, and included clinically suspected cases of septicemia in neonates and infants. Materials and Methods: Blood culture reports were studied in 363 cases of clinically suspected septicemia in neonates and infants, using the standard technique of Mackie and McCartney. The antibiotic sensitivity was performed by Kirby-Bauer's disc diffusion method. Risk factors for sepsis in the children were registered. Results: Blood culture was positive in 22% of cases. Gram-negative septicemia was encountered in 61% of the culture-positive cases. Pseudomonas and Enterobacter species were the predominant pathogens amongst gram-negative organisms. Most gram-negative organisms were sensitive to Amikacin, Ciprofloxacin, and Co-trimoxazole. The most common gram-positive organism isolated was Staphylococcus aureus (97%). More than 70% of Staphylococci isolated were resistant to Penicillin, but were sensitive to Clindamycin (70%) and Vancomycin (40%). The most important risk factors of septicemia in our study population were preterm birth (31%), followed by respiratory distress (5%) and low birth weight (4%). Conclusion: As the cultures showed variable antibiogram with complicated patterns of resistance, culture and sensitivity test should be performed in all cases of septicemia.
  5,995 17 6
Two highly immunized hilly areas versus double measles outbreak investigations in district Kangra, Himachal Pradesh, India, in 2006
Surender N Gupta, Naveen Gupta
January-June 2009, 1(1):14-20
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.52976  PMID:20300381
Background: We investigated two sequential outbreaks of measles in seven villages of Kangra, to confirm the diagnosis and to formulate recommendations for prevention and control. Methods: We defined a case of measles as occurrence of fever with rash in a child aged six months to 17 years during the period 3 rd September to 23 rd November 2006. We collected information on age, sex, residence, date of onset, symptoms, signs, treatment taken, traveling history and vaccination status. We described the outbreak by time, place and person. We estimated vaccine coverage and efficacy in the affected villages. We confirmed diagnosis clinically, serologically and through genotyping of the virus. Results: We identified 69 cases. Overall attack rates ranged between 4.2% and 6%. All case patients were between 6 years to 11 years of age. Age-specific attack rate in double outbreaks ranged in between 1.7% and 21.6%, the highest being in the age range 11-17 years. No deaths or complications were reported. The epidemic curve was suggestive of typical propagated pattern. The first outbreak imported virus after an interschool game competition (relative risk, 6.44%; 95% confidence interval, 3.81-10.91); followed by the second outbreak, in which people exchanged foods in the festival in one infected village of the first outbreak (relative risk, 5.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.90-14.77; P <.001). The calculated immunization coverage (93%) coincided nearly with administrative claims. The vaccine efficacies were estimated to be 85% and 81% in the first and second outbreaks respectively. Eleven of the 16 case patients were tested for measles IgM antibodies, while two nasopharyngeal swabs were positive by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and are genotyped D4 measles strain. Vitamin A supplementations were only given in four villages. Conclusion: Measles outbreaks were confirmed in high-immunization-coverage areas. We recommended (i) second dose opportunity for measles in Himachal Pradesh and (ii) vitamin A supplementation to all the case patients.
  5,375 526 1
Intravenous immunoglobulin in the treatment of severe Clostridium difficile colitis
Nihar Shah, Hamid Shaaban, Robert Spira, Jihad Slim, Jack Boghossian
April-June 2014, 6(2):82-85
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.132053  PMID:24926170
Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has been utilized in patients with recurrent and refractory Clostridium difficile colitis. It is increasingly being used in patients with initial clinical presentation of severe colitis. Herein, we report a case of severe C. Difficile colitis successfully treated with IVIG with a review of the medical literature to identify the optimal timing and clinical characteristics for this treatment strategy.
  5,784 64 -
Immunological perspectives of leishmaniasis
Susanne Nylen, Shalini Gautam
May-August 2010, 2(2):135-146
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.62876  PMID:20606969
Leishmania parasites have been widely used in experimental models to understand generation, maintenance and failure of immune responses underlying resistance and susceptibility to infection. The clinical outcomes of Leishmania infection depend on the infecting species and the immune status of the host. Noticeably most people exposed Leishmania never develop overt disease. Understanding the immunological events that result in failure or successful control of the parasites is fundamental to both design and evaluation of vaccines and therapies against the leishmaniases. Recent studies visualizing immune response to Leishmania major in the skin have given new insights into the different immune cells acting as hosts the parasite during different stage of infection. Control of Leishmania infection and disease progression has been associated with generation of T-helper (Th) 1 and Th2 responses respectively. Though still valid in several aspects, the Th1/Th2 paradigm is an oversimplification in need of revision. Th2 polarization has never explained severity of human leishmanial disease and a number of other T-cell subsets, including regulatory T- and Th17- cells, have important roles in susceptibility and resistance of both experimental and human leishmanial disease. This review gives an updated overview of immunological response considered to be of importance in protection, susceptibility, disease progression and cure of leishmaniasis, with a special emphasis on human diseases.
  5,435 338 17
Cephalosporin resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Manju Bala, Seema Sood
September-December 2010, 2(3):284-290
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.68537  PMID:20927291
Gonorrhea, a disease of public health importance, not only leads to high incidence of acute infections and complications but also plays a major role in facilitating human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition and transmission. One of the major public health needs for gonorrhea control is appropriate, effective treatment. However, treatment options for gonorrhea are diminishing as Neisseria gonorrhoeae have developed resistance to several antimicrobial drugs such as sulfonamides, penicillin, tetracyclines and quinolones. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance of N. gonorrhoeae helps establish and maintain the efficacy of standard treatment regimens. AMR surveillance should be continuous to reveal the emergence of new resistant strains, monitor the changing patterns of resistance, and be able to update treatment recommendations so as to assist in disease control. Current treatment guidelines recommend the use of single dose injectable or oral cephalosporins. The emergence and spread of cephalosporin resistant and multi drug resistant N. gonorrhoeae strains, represents a worrying trend that requires monitoring and investigation. Routine clinical laboratories need to be vigilant for the detection of such strains such that strategies for control and prevention could be reviewed and revised from time to time. It will be important to elucidate the genetic mechanisms responsible for decreased susceptibility and future resistance. There is also an urgent need for research of safe, alternative anti-gonococcal compounds that can be administered orally and have effective potency, allowing high therapeutic efficacy (greater than 95.0% cure rate).
  5,605 114 4
Methicillin and vancomycin resistant S. aureus in hospitalized patients
Poonam Sood Loomba, Juhi Taneja, Bibhabati Mishra
September-December 2010, 2(3):275-283
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.68535  PMID:20927290
S. aureus is the major bacterial cause of skin, soft tissue and bone infections, and one of the commonest causes of healthcare-associated bacteremia. Hospital-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) carriage is associated with an increased risk of infection, morbidity and mortality. Screening of high-risk patients at the time of hospital admission and decolonization has proved to be an important factor in an effort to reduce nosocomial transmission. The electronic database Pub Med was searched for all the articles on "Establishment of MRSA and the emergence of vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA)." The search included case reports, case series and reviews. All the articles were cross-referenced to search for any more available articles. A total of 88 references were obtained. The studies showed a steady increase in the number of vancomycin-intermediate and vancomycin-resistant S. aureus. Extensive use of vancomycin creates a selective pressure that favors the outgrowth of rare, vancomycin-resistant clones leading to heterogenous vancomycin intermediate S. aureus hVISA clones, and eventually, with continued exposure, to a uniform population of vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA) clones. However, the criteria for identifying hVISA strains have not been standardized, complicating any determination of their clinical significance and role in treatment failures. The spread of MRSA from the hospital to the community, coupled with the emergence of VISA and VRSA, has become major concern among healthcare providers. Infection-control measures, reliable laboratory screening for resistance, appropriate antibiotic prescribing practices and avoidance of blanket treatment can prevent long-term emergence of resistance.
  5,390 181 8
Surveying infections among pregnant women in the Niger Delta, Nigeria
FI Buseri, E Seiyaboh, ZA Jeremiah
September-December 2010, 2(3):203-211
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.68525  PMID:20927278
Background: There is paucity of epidemiological data on infectious diseases among antenatal mothers in Bayelsa State of the Niger Delta, Nigeria. Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of the serological markers Human immunodeficiency virus-antibody (HIV-Ab), Hepatitis B surface antigen(HBsAg), Hepatitis C virus antibody(HCV-A)and antibodies to T.pallidum among pregnant women in Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, South-South Nigeria. Settings and Design: This is a cross-sectional study which was carried out in Yenagoa city, the heart of the Niger Delta, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibodies were detected by using "Determine" HIV-1/2 test strip (Abbott Laboratories, Japan); hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibodies to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) and antibodies to T. pallidum were carried out using ACON rapid test strips (ACON Laboratories, USA). All positive samples for HIV, HBV and HCV were confirmed using the Clinotech diagnostic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test kits (Clinotech Laboratories, USA), while all reactive samples to Treponema pallidum antibodies were confirmed by the Treponema pallidum hemagglutination (TPHA) test (Lorne Laboratories Ltd., UK). All test procedures were carried out according to the manufacturers' instructions. Statistical Analysis Used: The data generated were coded, entered, validated and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS), version 12.0, and Epi info. The seroprevalence of syphilis, HBsAg, HCV and HIV was expressed for the entire study group by age, sex and other demographic features using Pearson chi-square analysis. Values below 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 1,000 apparently healthy pregnant women aged between 15 and 44 years with a mean of 27.34΁5.43 years were screened. In terms of percentage, 89.4% of the subjects were married, and 10.6% were without formal husbands. The overall seroprevalence of HIV, HBsAg, HCV and syphilis was found to be 4.1%, 5.3%, 0.5% and 5.0%, respectively. Conclusions: High prevalence of some infectious diseases was observed in the present study, which may pose serious health risk to women of reproductive age in this region. It is important to point out that there is need to improve antenatal care of pregnant women by mandatory screening for these infectious diseases.
  5,280 186 3
Extended spectrum beta-lactamase detection in gram-negative bacilli of nosocomial origin
Dechen C Tsering, Shyamasree Das, Luna Adhiakari, Ranabir Pal, Takhellambam S.K Singh
July-December 2009, 1(2):87-92
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.56247  PMID:20300397
Background: Resistance to third generation cephalosporins by acquisition and expression of extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) enzymes among gram-negative bacilli is on a rise. The presence of ESBL producing organisms significantly affects the course and outcome of an infection and poses a challenge to infection management worldwide. Materials and Methods: In the period from June 2007 to 2008, we collected 1489 samples from patients suspected of nosocomial infection. The isolates were identified based on colony morphology and biochemical reaction. Gram negative bacilli resistant to third generation cephalosporins were tested for ESBL by double disc synergy test (DDST- a screening test )and then phenotypic confirmatory test. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done by modified Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Results: From the sample of 238 gram-negative bacilli, we isolated Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter freundii, Proteus mirabilis, Morganella morganii and Enterobacter cloacae. Following both methods, 34% isolates were ESBL-positive. The ESBL producing isolates were significantly resistant (p < 0.01) to ampicillin, piperacillin, piperacillin/tazobactam, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin as compared to non-ESBL producers. Multidrug resistance was significantly (p < 0.01) higher (69.14%) in ESBL positive isolates than non-ESBL isolates (21.66%). Conclusion: High prevalence of ESBL in our hospital cannot be ignored. ESBL producers can be detected by DDST and phenotypic confirmatory test with equal efficacy. The sensitivity of screening test improved with the use of more than one antibiotic and addition of one or two antibiotics would not increase cost and labor. We recommend DDST using multiple antibiotics in all microbiology units as a routine screening test.
  4,852 575 4
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