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Coverpage
July-September 2020
Volume 12 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 117-164

Online since Saturday, August 29, 2020

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EDITORIAL  

State of the globe: Probiotics: The “good bacteria” may help healthy people but can these be recommended formally? p. 117
Sunil Kumar Raina
DOI:10.4103/jgid.jgid_12_20  
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Lactobacillus rhamnosus infection: A single-center 4-year descriptive analysis p. 119
Fritzie S Albarillo, Ushma Shah, Cara Joyce, David Slade
DOI:10.4103/jgid.jgid_112_19  
Introduction: Lactobacillus rhamnosus is an anaerobic or facultative anaerobic Gram-positive rod that is commonly found in the human gastrointestinal tract and vaginal tract. Infections secondary to L. rhamnosus have not been well illustrated in the literature. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical courses of patients with L. rhamnosus infection in our institution. Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed on patients with the growth of L. rhamnosus or L. rhamnosus/casei from January 1, 2013, to December 31, 2017. Results: Forty-seven patients had growth of L. rhamnosus or L. rhamnosus/casei. Of these, 35 patients were included in the study who received therapy. Twenty patients (57.1%) presented with leukocytosis, 17 (48.5%) with fever, and 15 (42.8%) with abdominal pain. Twenty-three (66.1%) had intra-abdominal infection, 8 (22.3%) were bacteremic, and 4 (11.4%) had mediastinitis. Thirty-three patients (94.3%) had a polymicrobial infection. Eighteen (51.4%) patients had disruption of the gastrointestinal tract, 14 (40.0%) had underlying malignancy, and 11 (31.4%) had prior antibiotic exposure. Twenty (57.1%) patients clinically improved after therapy. However, the overall mortality rate was 56.2%, all of whom died of unrelated causes. Conclusion: Lactobacilli are organisms thought to have low pathogenicity. Our study identified cases of L. rhamnosus infections in a population of patients with serious underlying medical conditions.
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Morbidity and mortality due to pneumococcal disease in children in Ecuador from 2005 to 2015 p. 124
Ruth Jimbo-Sotomayor, Luciana Armijos-Acurio, José Proaño-Espinosa, Katy Segarra-Galarza, Xavier Sánchez-Choez
DOI:10.4103/jgid.jgid_125_19  
Introduction: Studies have shown that pneumococcal disease significantly increases morbidity and mortality rates in children 5 years old and under. These infections constitute the main cause of preventable deaths in the world, considering the availability of vaccination. Considering that Ecuador is in a high incidence region, despite the introduction of the vaccine, this study aims to describe the burden of hospitalized pneumococcal disease and related mortality in our country between 2005 and 2015, to help decision-making processes for the health authorities. Methods: This cross-sectional study analyzes morbidity, mortality, and the situation in Ecuador caused by pneumococcal disease in children 5 years old and under between 2005 and 2015 using national databases. Results: A total of 163,852 cases of children 5 years old and under were reported to have been hospitalized due to pneumococcal-related diseases. Males comprised 54.7% of the cases and females 45.3%. In 36% of the cases, the patients were 1 year old or under. The mortality rate due to pneumococcal disease in Ecuador in children aged 5 and under decreased in 48% during 2005–2015. Conclusion: The decrease in mortality can be related to the introduction of the vaccine and an increase in access to health care by the general population in the country. It is important to study the specific impact of the vaccine in the reduction of morbidity and mortality of children in Ecuador.
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Detection of biofilm production and its impact on antibiotic resistance profile of bacterial isolates from chronic wound infections p. 129
Kala Harika, Vishnu Prasad Shenoy, Nagalakshmi Narasimhaswamy, Kiran Chawla
DOI:10.4103/jgid.jgid_150_19  
Background: Microorganisms are known to be involved in the formation of biofilm. These biofilms are often seen in chronic wound infections, surgical site infections, implants etc., These are capable of causing recalcitrant infections and most of them are also known to possess high antibiotic resistance. Objectives: This study was conducted to detect the biofilm formation in bacterial isolates from chronic wound infections. Materials and Methods: In the present study, ninety two isolates from chronic wound infections were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS (bioMerieux) and VITEK-2-MS (bioMerieux). These isolates were further screened for biofilm formation by three methods i. e., Tissue Culture Plate method (TCP), Tube Method (TM) and Congo Red Agar (CRA) method. Impact of biofilm production was correlated with the antibiotic resistant pattern. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was done for all three methods considering TCP as Gold Standard and parameters like senitivity and specificity of TM i.e. 47.2 and 100% respectively. Results: Out of 92 isolates, biofilm formation was seen in 72 isolates (78.2%) by TCP method. 64 isolates were strong biofilm producers, 8 isolates were moderate biofilm producers and 20 isolates were nonbiofilm producing. High prevalence of biofilm formation was seen in nonhealing ulcers infected with Staphylococcus aureus followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae. Conclusion: Among three screening methods used for detection of biofilm production, TCP method is considered to be a standard and most reliable for screening of biofilm formation in comparison to TM and CRA.
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Risk factors of inpatients mortality of visceral leishmaniasis, Khartoum State, Sudan p. 135
Omaima Abdel Majeed Mohamed Salih, Abdelsalam M Nail, Gad Allah Modawe, Mohamed Osman Swar, Mohamed H Ahmed, Atif Khalil, Abdelsalam Basheir Satti, Nadir Abuzeid
DOI:10.4103/jgid.jgid_25_20  
Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is one of the common infections in Sudan and can be associated with an increase in morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to assess the risk factors associated with mortality and morbidity with VL. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional hospital-based study that recruited 150 patients with VL from two centers in Khartoum. Secondary data were extracted from the patient records, and data were analyzed using SPSS version 24.0. Results: The study included 2.5% of infants, 39.4% children, and 58% of adults. Male represents 77.3% of the cohort, and total mortality was 16%. Among the death reported 12.5% in infants, 16.7% were children, and 70.8% were in adults. Laboratory parameters significantly associated with mortality in univariate analysis were low white cell count, low platelets, high creatinine, and high liver enzymes. While risk factors such as infant, male, acquired infection from Eastern Sudan or White Nile, weight loss, morbid diseases, and concomitant bacterial infections were also associated with significant mortality in univariate analysis. Importantly, logistic regression analysis revealed significant association with infant (P = 0.02), concomitant bacterial infections (P = 0.003), comorbid disease (P = 0.001), low total blood cell count (P = 0.018), low platelets (P = 0.013), and high aspartate transaminase/alanine aminotransferase (P = 0.013). Conclusion: Health education and awareness are needed in terms of prevention and control, especially with high mortality seen in the infant. Treatment of underlying co-morbid diseases and bacterial infections are important to enhance survival. Patients with Leishmania are vulnerable; therefore, regular routine blood tests are an essential part of management to manage complications such as renal, hepatic failure, or severe anemia.
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Comparison of genotypic and phenotypic methods of metallo-β- lactamase detection in Acinetobacter spp. p. 141
Priyam Batra, Vijeta Bajpai, Aishwarya Govindaswamy, Surbhi Khurana, Muruganantham Ayyanar, Purva Mathur, Rajesh Malhotra
DOI:10.4103/jgid.jgid_38_19  
Introduction: MBL containing genes have been reported in all GNBs including Acinetobacter spp since 1990s which are worrisome as they are transmitted by mobile genetic elements. Thus, early detection of MBL encoding organisms is necessary. The current study was designed to identify the most sensitive cost-effective test which could be used as a screening test for detection of cabapenamase producing Acinetobacter isolates. Methodology: All consecutive strains of Acinetobacter spp isolated from various clinical samples were included. All isolates found resistant to any of the carbapenems were tested for MBL production using MHT (on MacConkey Agar and Mueller Hinton Agar), Etest (using Imipenem/Meropenem-EDTA) and Combined Disc Test (using EDTA and 2 MPA as inhibitors and Ceftazidime/Imipenem/Meropenem as substrate discs). PCR was performed for representative strains for IMP, VIM, KPC, OXA and NDM-1 gene. Results: Total of 154 non-duplicate strains of Acinetobacter spp were isolated and identified, of which, 134 (88%) and 126 (82%) were resistant to meropenem and imipenem respectively. All 134 meropenem resistant strains were tested for MBL production and PCR was performed on 100 strains. 3(3%), 5(5%), 7(7%), 26(26%), and 51(51%) strains had IMP gene, VIM gene, KPC gene, OXA gene and NDM-1 gene. MHT on MAC had better performance than on MHA and dilution to 0.05 McFarland was not required. Conclusion: MHT on MAC had best sensitivity when compared with gold standard PCR and was also cost effective. With ROC curve, we found that 2MPA was not a good MBL inhibitor when compared with EDTA..
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PUBLIC HEALTH RESEARCH Top

Perceived discrimination among tuberculosis patients in an urban area of Kolkata City, India p. 144
Sitikantha Banerjee, Kajari Bandyopadhyay, Pranita Taraphdar, Aparajita Dasgupta
DOI:10.4103/jgid.jgid_146_19  
Context and Aims: Tuberculosis (TB) in India is a leading public health problem plagued by social determinants such as stigma and discrimination, which may affect treatment seeking, adherence, and possibly treatment outcome. This study was conducted to elicit the perceived discrimination, its determinants, as well as to determine whether perceived discrimination is predicting treatment outcome among TB patients registered in an Urban Health District, Kolkata City, India. Settings and Design: An institutionbased follow-up study was conducted where all the TB patients registered within the 1st 4 months of data collection were followed up for their current course of treatment. Subjects and Methods: Perceived discrimination was assessed at treatment initiation, after intensive period and after continuation phase using a predesigned and pretested questionnaire. Statistical Analysis Used: Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the determinants of perceived discrimination as well as the treatment outcome. Results: Perceived discrimination by family members, neighbors, and colleagues was reported by 9.4%, 36.5%, and 34.2% participants, respectively, overall discrimination being 37.9%. Multivariable analysis revealed that discrimination was significantly more among patients with older age group, females, and from joint families. Perceived discriminated was found to be significantly predicting unfavorable treatment outcome even after adjustment with background and treatment-related variables. Conclusions: Sensitization programs should incorporate measures to address stigma and discrimination and more emphasis needs to be placed on women and elderly patients.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Ocular syphilis presenting as acute necrotizing retinitis in a human immunodeficiency virus-positive patient p. 149
Sucheta Parija, CS Lalitha
DOI:10.4103/jgid.jgid_105_19  
The incidence of ocular syphilis is increasing in the developing world even in the era of effective human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment, as there is a potential increase of high-risk sexual behavior. Ocular involvement in the form of uveitis is seen in all stages of syphilis. Diagnosis begins with ophthalmologic examination, but requires serologic testing for confirmation. Ocular syphilis presents with unusual presentations or mimics other diseases and is identified by serological screening. It is curable with a relatively short course of antibiotic treatment, making its recognition a priority. All ophthalmic manifestations of syphilis should be treated with a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-approved neurosyphilis regimen. In this report, we present a case of necrotizing retinitis with no response to antiviral treatment. On subsequent serological testing it was proved as syphilis in a HIV-positive patient who responded well to intravenous antibiotics with rapid visual recovery. Hence, awareness of this disease will promote early diagnosis and treatment.
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Late prosthetic valve infective endocarditis by Enterococcus durans p. 152
Mohammed Al Shehri, Muhammad Samsoor Zarak, Arif R Sarwari
DOI:10.4103/jgid.jgid_99_19  
Enterococcus durans is an extremely rare cause of infective endocarditis. We have reported the first case where a 56-year-old female presented with late prosthetic valve infective endocarditis on a mechanical mitral valve. Medical management failed and eventually lead to the demise of the patient.
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Cerebrovascular accident in a 65-year-old patient with Rothia dentocariosa-associated endocarditis p. 156
Divyesh Doddapaneni, Vineet Pasam Reddy, Madhavi Rayapudi
DOI:10.4103/jgid.jgid_136_19  
A 65-year-old male patient with a history of heart valve replacement surgery after aortic valve stenosis and a family history of heart disease presented to the emergency room with complaints of headache, fever, back pain, and general malaise. Multiple blood samples during the patient's hospitalization cultured showed Rothia dentocariosa. The patient was started on daily intravenous ceftriaxone and vancomycin. In the following weeks, the patient's condition deteriorated with additional symptoms, persistent inflammatory markers, and elevated fever consistent with R. dentocariosa infection. The patient's clinical progression led to a cerebrovascular accident that was resolved with thrombectomy. Full symptomatic relief occurred after a valve replacement. R. dentocariosa, a common mouth flora, is not commonly pathogenic. This case is of particular importance as severe complications involving this bacterium are rare. There is an extreme paucity of cases involving deadly complications of R. dentocariosa, and there is no general consensus involving standard treatment regimen for this bacterium. We believe that this paper adds to clinical knowledge surrounding R. dentocariosa.
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LETTERS TO EDITOR Top

Favorable outcome after treatment using antibiotics and hydroxychloroquine in a patient with tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome: A 7-year follow-up p. 159
Tatiana Galperine, Alexis Lacout, Pierre Yves Marcy, Christian Perronne
DOI:10.4103/jgid.jgid_7_19  
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Tranexamic acid: A potential treatment option for coronavirus disease 2019 p. 160
Kok Hoe Chan, Iyad Farouji, Jihad Slim, Hamid S Shaaban, Gunwant Guron
DOI:10.4103/jgid.jgid_132_20  
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Co-infection with malaria and coronavirus disease-2019 p. 162
Manjusha Ray, Archana Vazifdar, Shashikala Shivaprakash
DOI:10.4103/jgid.jgid_160_20  
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Over 8000 macaque bites since 2014 but no herpes B virus infection reported from Shimla, India p. 163
Suman Thakur, Vivek Chauhan, Kamlesh Sharma, Mrinalini Singh
DOI:10.4103/jgid.jgid_250_20  
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2008 Journal of Global Infectious Diseases | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 10th December, 2008