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Coverpage
July-September 2019
Volume 11 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 89-131

Online since Monday, August 26, 2019

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EDITORIAL  

State of The Globe: Health-related quality of life as health status measure: Time to move on p. 89
Sunil Kumar Raina
DOI:10.4103/jgid.jgid_163_18  
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COMMENTARY Top

Cardiovascular disease and antiretroviral therapy p. 91
Bhavesh Jarwani
DOI:10.4103/jgid.jgid_4_18  
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Analyzing the effect of organizational factors on reducing the disease transmission risk in nurses using an AIDS risk reduction model p. 93
Suarnianti , Tri Martiana, Yusran Haskas
DOI:10.4103/jgid.jgid_128_18  
Aims: Nurses are one of the health workers who face a high risk of contracting a disease at their workplace. The officers who are inconsistent in maintaining standard precautions when treating patients render nurses to be exposed to infectious disease. Settings and Design: This was an analytic observational study with a longitudinal design. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in two Provincial B Type Government Hospitals, namely, Labuang Baji Provincial Regional Hospital and Makassar Haji Regional General Hospital, in Makassar City, with a sample size of 104 respondents. The data were subjected to ANOVA test to determine the effect of organizational factors on reducing the risk of AIDS risk reduction model-based disease transmission. Results: The results of this study indicate that the organizational factors do not affect the labeling of nurses related to the reduction of the risk of disease transmission (b = 0.086, ρ = 0.379). The organizational factors influence nurses commitment related to the reduction of the risk of disease transmission (b = 0.328, ρ = <0.001) and also their enactment related to the reduction of the risk of disease transmission (b = 0.199, ρ = 0.030). Conclusions: The organizational factors related to the reduction of the risk of disease transmission affect the action of nurses to reduce the risk (enactment) through the commitment. These organizational factors also affect the labeling of nurses as individuals who are at a risk of contracting a disease so as to facilitate the adoption of a behavior to reduce the risk of disease transmission in hospital.
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Assessment of health-related quality of life among tuberculosis patients in a public primary care facility in Indonesia p. 102
Ika Sartika, Widya Norma Insani, Rizky Abdulah
DOI:10.4103/jgid.jgid_136_18  
Background and Objectives: Evaluation of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among tuberculosis (TB) patients could improve understanding about the burden associated with the diseases. There is a paucity of research regarding evaluation of HRQoL among TB population in Indonesia. This study aimed to investigate HRQoL among TB patients in Ciamis, Indonesia. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at one primary health-care facility in Ciamis, Indonesia. HRQoL was measured using the World Health Organization (WHO) QoL-BREF instrument which covers assessment on physical, psychological, social relationship, and environmental health domains. Multiple regression analysis was used to investigate the association between domain scores with demographic factors of the participants such as age, sex, education years, and types of treatment. Statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS software version 21. Results: Eighty-one participants were recruited in the present study. The total mean score for all domains was 45.35 (±23.3). The mean scores for physical, physiological, social relationship, and environmental health domains were 20.5 (±9.9), 76.4 (±11.9), 36.9 (±9.2), and 46.9 (±10.4), respectively. Education years were significantly associated with improved HRQoL in environmental health domain (P < 0.05). Conclusion: TB had remarkable negative impacts on patients HRQoL, with physical domain was the most affected. This finding calls upon strategies addressing HRQoL problems in the management of TB patients.
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Seroprevalence of Herpes Simplex virus among human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients in resource-limited setting p. 107
Thairu Yunusa, Shehu Abubakar Haruna, Habib Zaiyad Garba
DOI:10.4103/jgid.jgid_168_18  
Introduction: There are two types of herpes simplex virus (HSV): HSV Type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV Type 1 (HSV-2). Viral comorbidity in HIV is on the increase. This study determines the seroprevalence of HSV 1 and 2 among immunodeficient patients in Gwagwalada, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This is a hospital-based descriptive cross-sectional study which spanned 24 months from October 2014 to September 2016. A total of 160 HIV seropositive patients were recruited from venereology clinic. Results: The overall prevalence of herpes simplex infection among HIV seropositive patients in this study was 13.8%, the prevalence of herpes simplex Type 1 was 63.6%, while that of herpes simplex Type 2 was 36.4%. The mean age of the patients was 29 ± 13.9 years and the male-to-female ratio was 1:2. There were 52 male (32.5%) and 108 female (67.5%) seropositives. Among the 22 patients with positive HSV result, seven representing 31.8% were males, while 15 (68.2%) were females. The buttock was the predominant site of the body affected by herpes lesions in 7 of the patients representing 31.8%, four of these patients were infected with herpes simplex Type 2, while three representing 21.4% were herpes simplex Type 1. Other body sites are labia/penile (18.1%), oral (22.7%), and nasal (13.6%). In association with CD4 counts, five (35.7%) Herpes simplex Type 1 was isolated from patients with CD4 counts of 200–500 cell/mm and >500 cells/mm, respectively. The seroprevalence of herpes simplex Type 2 among patients with CD4 counts of <200 cell/mm was 62.5%. Conclusion: Herpes simplex infections are important viral comorbidity among HIV patients; this was more observed among females. Sexual practice play an important role with the occurrence of HSV-1 in patients with genital rash and predominance of buttock lesion.
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Biofilm formation of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from clinical samples in Northern Thailand p. 112
Thawatchai Kitti, Rathanin Seng, Rapee Thummeepak, Chalermchai Boonlao, Thanyasiri Jindayok, Sutthirat Sitthisak
DOI:10.4103/jgid.jgid_118_18  
Background: Methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MR-CoNS) are multidrug-resistant bacteria that are difficult to treat because of their ability to form biofilms. Objectives: In the present study, we evaluated the antibiotic-resistant phenotypes, biofilm-forming ability, and biofilm associated genes of 55 clinical MR-CoNS isolates obtained from two hospitals in Thailand. Materials and Methods: MALDI-TOF-MS and tuf gene sequencing were performed to determine the species of all isolates. Biofilm production was determined using Congo red agar (CRA) and the microtiter plate (MTP) assay. Biofilm-associated genes were characterized using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: Among the 55 MR-CoNS isolates, five species were identified as Staphylococcus haemolyticus (34.5%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (32.7%), Staphylococcus capitis (18.2%), Staphylococcus cohnii (9.1%), and Staphylococcus hominis (5.5%). The antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of MR-CoNS isolates indicated high resistance to cefoxitin (100%), penicillin (98.2%), erythromycin (96.4%), ciprofloxacin (67.3%), sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (67.3%), gentamicin (67.3%), and clindamycin (63.6%). All the isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and linezolid. The biofilm production was detected in 87.3% isolates through the CRA method and in 38.1% isolates through the MTP assay. The prevalence rates of ica AD, bap, fnb A, and cna were 18.2%, 12.7%, 47.3%, and 27.3%, respectively. There were significant differences in the presence of these biofilm-associated genes among the MR-CoNS isolates. Moreover, quantitative biofilm formation was significantly different among MR-CoNS species. Conclusion: The present study revealed that biofilm-associated genes are important for biofilm biomass in MR-CoNS isolates, and the findings of this study are essential for finding new strategies to control biofilm formation and prevent the spread of MR-CoNS infectious diseases.
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Hemoglobin S and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency coinheritance in AS and SS individuals in malaria-endemic region: A study in Calabar, Nigeria p. 118
Ifeyinwa M Okafor, Henshaw U Okoroiwu, Chukwudi A Ekechi
DOI:10.4103/jgid.jgid_154_18  
Background: Malaria placed a huge burden on human life and has been reported to be a key health problem affecting developing countries. This study was designed to assay for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) status and malaria parasite density of individuals with sickle cell gene in University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar. Subjects and Methods: The methemoglobin method was used to determine the G6PD status. Thick blood films were used to ascertain the malaria parasite density while hemoglobin genotype was determined using cellulose acetate paper electrophoresis with tris ethylenediaminetetracetic acid borate buffer (pH 8.6). Thirty hemoglobin SS (HbSS) and 30 hemoglobin AS (HbAS) individuals were recruited for the study while 30 hemoglobin AA (HbAA) individuals were recruited as control. Results: The study showed a high frequency of G6PD deficiency (17.78%) in the study area while G6PD deficiency was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in HbAA individuals (33.33%) when compared to HbSS (10.00%) and HbAS (10.00%) individuals. The prevalence of malaria parasitemia and parasite density was comparable in the three hemoglobin variants. The distribution of malaria parasitemia and parasite density in both gender among the various hemoglobin variants showed no association (P > 0.05). G6PD deficiency distribution in both gender were found to be comparable (P > 0.05). The distribution of malaria parasitemia in the various hemoglobin variants in the G6PD-deficient individuals showed no significant difference (P > 0.5). However, the parasite density of the HbAS (3100 ± 1828.48 μL) and HbSS (2400 ± 1687.06 μL) were significantly lower than that of HbAA (4040 ± 1529.44 μL). Conclusion: The result of this study supports the hypothesis that inheriting the G6PD deficiency gene and sickle cell gene (both in homozygous and heterozygous form) reduces the severity of malaria parasite infection and hence protects against severe acute malaria while having less effect on infection.
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MICROBIOLOGY REPORT Top

Prevalence and characterization of carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli from a tertiary care hospital in India p. 123
Aishwarya Govindaswamy, Vijeta Bajpai, Surbhi Khurana, Priyam Batra, Purva Mathur, Rajesh Malhotra
DOI:10.4103/jgid.jgid_68_18  
The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence and to characterize the carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli by various phenotypic antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods, and its performance was compared to the gold standard genotypic method. The prevalence of carbapenemase-resistant E. coli was found to be 65%. The phenotypic methods evaluated are cost-effective and can be used in resource-limited laboratories to rule out carbapenem resistance.
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CASE REPORT Top

Wohlfahrtiimonas chitiniclastica bloodstream infection due to a maggot-infested wound in a 54-year-old male p. 125
Kathryn L Connelly, Elliot Freeman, Olivia C Smibert, Belinda Lin
DOI:10.4103/jgid.jgid_58_18  
We report a case of Wohlfahrtiimonas chitiniclastica bacteremia and sepsis, in the setting of lower limb wounds with maggot infestation. This is the first documented infection by this organism in the Australasia/Pacific region, identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid sequencing. Clinicians should be aware of this emerging pathogen.
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LETTERS TO EDITOR Top

Universal primers as a potential tool for the detection of emerging flaviviruses p. 127
Iván Delgado-Enciso, Francisco Espinoza-Gómez, Erika J Verján-Carrillo, Gabriel Ceja-Espiritu, Perla A Rios-Flores, Tiburcio Lizama-Munguía, Jorge A Salazar-Barragán, Jose B Soto-Castellano, Salvador Valle-Reyes, Uriel A López-Lemus
DOI:10.4103/jgid.jgid_137_18  
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Follow-up of a case of cryptosporidiosis in a toddler from Mexico: Response to the treatment p. 129
Alejandro Urrea-Quezada, Norberto Sotelo-Cruz, Mariana González-Díaz, Olivia Valenzuela
DOI:10.4103/jgid.jgid_119_18  
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ERRATUM Top

Erratum: Global contributors to antibiotic resistance p. 131

DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.265390  
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2008 Journal of Global Infectious Diseases | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 10th December, 2008