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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 75-81

Human leukocyte antigen-e alleles are associated with hepatitis c virus, torque teno virus, and toxoplasma co-infections but are not associated with hepatitis b virus, hepatitis d virus, and GB virus c co-infections in human immunodeficiency virus patients


1 A-IGIC (A-Infection, Genomic, Immunology & Cancer) Research Group; Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine; Center of Biotechnology and Biodiversity Research and Development, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta, Indonesia
2 A-IGIC (A-Infection, Genomic, Immunology & Cancer) Research Group; Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Surakarta, Indonesia
3 A-IGIC (A-Infection, Genomic, Immunology & Cancer) Research Group, Surakarta, Indonesia

Correspondence Address:
Afiono Agung Prasetyo
A-IGIC (A-Infection, Genomic, Immunology & Cancer) Research Group; Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine; Center of Biotechnology and Biodiversity Research and Development, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta
Indonesia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0974-777X.182121

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Context: Data regarding the distribution of Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-E alleles and their association with blood-borne pathogen infections/co-infections are limited for many populations, including Indonesia. Aims: The aim of this study was to analyze the association between HLA-E allelic variants and infection with blood-borne pathogens such as hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D virus (HDV), torque teno virus (TTV), GB virus C (GBV-C), and Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) in Indonesian Javanese human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients. Settings and Design: A total of 320 anti-HIV-positive blood samples were analyzed for HBV, HCV, HDV, TTV, GBV-C, and T. gondii infection status and its association with HLA-E allelic variants. Materials and Methods: Nucleic acid was extracted from plasma samples and used for the molecular detection of HBV DNA, HCV RNA, HDV RNA, TTV DNA, and GBV-C RNA, whereas hepatitis B surface antigen, anti-HCV, immunoglobulin M and G (IgM and IgG) anti-T. gondii were detected through serological testing. The blood samples were genotyped for HLA-E loci using a sequence-specific primer-polymerase chain reaction. Statistical Analysis Used: Either the Chi-square or Fisher's exact test was performed to analyze the frequency of HLA-E alleles and blood-borne pathogen infections in the population. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated to measure the association between the antibodies found and the participants' possible risk behaviors. A logistic regression analysis was used to assess the associations. Results: HLA-E*0101/0101 was associated with HCV/TTV co-infection (adjusted OR [aOR]: 3.5; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.156-10.734; P = 0.027) and IgM/IgG anti-Toxo positivity (aOR: 27.0; 95% CI: 3.626-200.472; P = 0.001). HLA-E*0103/0103 was associated with TTV co-infection (aOR: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.509-4.796; P = 0.001). Conclusions: HLA-E alleles in Indonesian Javanese HIV patients were found to be associated with HCV, TTV, and toxoplasma co-infections.


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2008 Journal of Global Infectious Diseases | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 10th December, 2008