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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2011  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 138-142

Antigenic distribution of west nile virus in various organs of wildly infected American crows (Corvus Brachyrhynchos)


1 Northwest Mosquito and Vector Control District, 1966 Compton Ave., Corona, CA 92881, USA;Department of Zoology, Punjabi University, Patiala, Punjab, India
2 Department of Zoology, Punjabi University, Patiala, Punjab, India
3 Northwest Mosquito and Vector Control District, 1966 Compton Ave., Corona, CA 92881, USA

Correspondence Address:
Tejbir S Sandhu
Northwest Mosquito and Vector Control District, 1966 Compton Ave., Corona, CA 92881, USA;Department of Zoology, Punjabi University, Patiala, Punjab, India

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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0974-777X.81690

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Objective: Since its discovery in the western hemisphere in 1999, West Nile virus (WNv) has caused extensive bird mortality across North America, especially in American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) which are highly susceptible to WNv. In this study, antigenic distribution of WNv among different organs of American crows was studied, using the immunohistochemistry technique (IHC). Materials and Methods: Dead crows reported by residents were collected, transported on ice, and were necropsied for heart, lung, brain, intestine, kidney, liver, spleen, pancreas, and gonad tissues. Gross examination was performed on brain, heart, lung, liver, kidney, spleen, bursa of fabricius, gastrointestinal tract, skeletal muscle, pancreas, reproductive tract, and skin. Gross hemorrhage of brain, splenomegaly, meningoencephalitis, myocarditis, and trauma were sporadically observed in some of the infected carcasses. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections were stained with IHC technique followed by counter staining with hematoxylin and eosin. Results: WNv antigen was detected in brain, spleen, heart, kidney, liver, gonads, intestine, lung, and pancreas. The spleen was found to be positive in all infected crows, followed by kidney, liver, and duodenum (95% each). Heart and pancreas were positive in 63% while brain was positive in 36.5% of the infected crows. Conclusion: More than one tissue sample is suggested to screen WNv infection using IHC technique. IHC has the advantage of correlating the visual destruction of tissue architecture with the presence of stained WNv antigen but as compared to PCR, IHC has the disadvantage of longer turnaround time, which is critical when used as a surveillance tool.


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2008 Journal of Global Infectious Diseases | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 10th December, 2008